Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (1,978)
PS101 (452)
Chapter 1

chapter 1 - what is psych.docx

4 Pages
74 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Semester
Fall

Description
What is psychology? o Behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by organism’s physical/mental state and external environment o Symbolized with o Empirical (evidence from careful observation, experiments, measurement) ‒ Makes use of research evidence and challenges opinion o Psychobabble pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language (confirms unsupported popular opinion) ‒ Ex. if you play classical music to an infant, do they actually become smarter? o Thinking critically: ‒ The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on basis of well-supported reasons and evidence instead of emotion or anecdote (a story) ‒ “Way that we look at things influence the data” Eight thinking guidelines: 1. Ask questions- be willing to wonder ‒ Asking ‘why’ and ‘how’ leads to identification of problems and challenges 2. Define your terms ‒ frame question in clear, concrete terms; vague/poorly definied terms can lead to misleading or incomplete answers ‒ ie. “what makes people happy?”- define happy! 3. Examine the evidence ‒ never accept a conclusion without evidence; “what evidence supports/refutes this argument & opposition?, how reliable is the evidence?” 4. Analyze assumptions and biases ‒ Assumptions: beliefs taken for granted; ex “you need the product we are selling” ‒ If assumptions keeps us from considering evidence fairly/ignoring evidence, becomes bias 5. Avoid emotional reasoning ‒ Emotional conviction alone can’t settle arguments; “is evidence unpersuasive or because results make you feel anxious or annoyed?” 6. Don’t oversimplify ‒ have more evidence than one or two stories before drawing conclusions 7. Consider other interpretations ‒ Get as many reasonable explanations of topic before settling on the most likely one 8. Tolerate uncertainty the past… o Didn’t rely on empirical methods and evidence o Phrenology example of psychobabble ‒ Ex. discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific personality traits that can be “read” from bumps on skull o the birth o Willhelm Wundt  Established first psychological lab (1879 U of Leipzig)  Goal to make psych science- except he like to train volunteers to observe (too subjective) Structuralism (died out) o Early approach that emphasized analysis of intermediate experience into basic elements o Interested in what happens o Introspection observe, analyze, describe own sensations, mental images, emotional reactions Functionalism (short lived) o Early approach that emphasized function or purpose of behavior and consciousness (Darwin & James) o Interested in how and why something happens o Functionalists broadened field of psych to include study of children, animals, religious experiences, streams of consciousness Psychoanalysis o Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy (Freud) o Physical symptoms because of emotional trauma/ conflicts from early childhood o Childhood plays key role in how we are in adulthood o Psychoanalysis Emphasized unconscious motives and desires (sexual & aggressive) the present… Major psychological perspectives o Biological perspective ‒ Approach that emphasizes how bodily events affect behavior, feelings and thoughts ‒ Includes hormones, brain chemistry, heredity, evolutionary psych (how past adaptive behaviours are reflected in present behaviours) ‒ “we can’t really know ourselves if we do not know our bodies” o Learning perspective ‒ Is concerned with how environment and experience affect a person’s (animal’s) actions ‒ Involves behaviourism (how environmental rewards and punishments influence behavior) ‒ Social-cognitive learning theories combine elements of behaviourism with thoughts, values, expectations, intentions; not only adapting to environment, but also imitating others etc. o Cognitive Psych ‒ Emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning ‒ Involves computer models of cognition, infant thinking, intelligence testing o Socio-cultural perspective ‒ Emphasizes social and cultural influence on behavior ‒ Involves social psychology study of rules, r
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit