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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11 - Development

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Eileen Wood
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 11 The course of prenatal development Germinal Stage – first two weeks  Conception, implementation, formation of the placenta Embryonic Stage – 2 weeks to two months  Formation of vital organs and systems Fetal Stage – 2 months to birth  Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply  Age of viability – the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Environmental factors and prenatal development Maternal nutrition  Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems, and psychopathology Maternal Drug use  Tobacco, alcohol, prescription, and recreational drugs (marijuana)  Pass through membranes of the placenta  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy Maternal illness  Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza th  Prenatal health – Canada is 16 in the prevention of infant mortality The wondrous years of childhood Exploring the world: motor development Basic Principles  Cephalocaudal trend – head to foot  Proximodial trend – centre –outward  Maturation – gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint Developmental norms - median age  Median age at which individuals display various behaviours and abilities  First words at 12 months  Words to sentences at 24 months  Progress is not exactly the same Cultural variations and their significance  Different cultures practice different and start motor activities quickly after birth Easy and difficult Babies: differences in Temperament  Temperament: refers to characteristic mood, activities level and emotional reactivity.  Longitudinal design: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time  Cross-sectional design: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time  Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970) o 3 Basic temperamental styles  easy – 40%  slow to warm-up – 15%  difficult – 10%  mixed – 35%  rather consistent  Kogan & Snidman (1991) o Inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament  Inhibited – 15 – 20%  Characterized by shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people objects and events  Uninhibited – 25-30%  Less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects, and event wit little trepidation  Stable over time, genetically based  Timidity in second year implies higher than average anxiety levels in adolescence Early emotional Development: attachment  Attachment refers to the close , emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers  Separation anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated form people with whom they have formed an attachment Pattern of Attachment  Secure attachment Play and explore comfortable wit their mother present, become visibly upset when she leaves and are quickly calmed when she returns  Anxious-ambivalent Anxious even when the mother is in the room and protest excessively when she leaves, but they are not particularly comforted when she returns  Avoidant attachment Seek little contact with their mother and often are not distressed when she leaves  Disorganized-disoriented Confused about whether they should approach or avoid their mother and are especially insecure Daycare and attachment  Nonmaternal care for over 20 hours a week have an increased risk of developing insure attachment s to their mothers  Bowlby originated to concept of attachment Becoming unique: personality development Stage Theory assume: 1. Individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous one 2. Progress through these stages is strongly related to age 3. Development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour Erikson’s stage theory Stage 1 – First year of life  Trust vs. Mistrust Is my world predictable and supportive? Stage 2 – Second and third years  Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others? Stage 3 – Fourth though sixth years  Initiative vs. guilt Am I good or am I bad? Stage 4 – age 6 through puberty  Industry vs. inferiority Am I competent or am I worthless? Stage 5 – adolescence  Identity vs. confusion Who am I and where am I going? Stage 6 – early adulthood  Intimacy vs. isolation Shall I share my life with another or live alone? Stage 7 – middle adulthood  Generativity vs. self-absorption Will I produce something of real value? Stage 8 – late adulthood  Integrity vs. despair Have I lived a full life? The growth of thought: cognitive development Transitions in youngster’s patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving Jean Piaget (1920-1980) Watched his own children Children actively explore the
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