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Chapter 14

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Kathy Foxall

Chapter 14:Theories of Personality Psychodynamic theories of personality  Psychoanalysis o Theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund freud, emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts  Psychodynamic theories o Explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics  Personality o Relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thought, motives, and emotions  Trait o Characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling  The structure of personality o Three major systems, id, ego, and superego o Id  Part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts  Obtain pleasure, avoid pain o Ego  Referee between needs and demands of society  Represents, reason, good sense, rational self control o Superego  Represents, conscience, morality, and social standards  Partly conscious, largely unconscious  Judges activities, guilt vs. pride o Defence mechanisms  Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness o Repression  Threatening idea, memory, or emotion blocked from consciousness o Projection  Person’s own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and attributed to someone else o Displacement  Direct emotions toward someone else o Regression  Person reverts to previous psychological phase o Denial  Occurs when people refuse to admit something unpleasant is happening  The Development of personality o Psychosexual stages  Idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures, oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital  Child may remain fixated at certain stage o Oedipus complex  Occurs in phallic stage, child desires the parent of the other sex o Shaped by how you progressed through early psychosexual stages, defence mechanisms developed reduce anxiety  JUNGIAN THEORY o Collective unconscious  Jungian theory, universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in symbols, stories, and images o Archetypes  Universal images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams, to Jungian, they reflect collective unconscious  Shadow archetype  Reflects prehistoric fear of wild animals, represents bestial, evil side of human nature  Object relations school o Psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infants two years of life and babies relationship with mother o Central problem is to find balance between need for independence and need for others  Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories  Three scientific failings o Violating the principle of falsifiability o Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few typical patients  Generalized from a few individuals o Basing theories of personality development on the account of adults  Theorists work backwards, create theories based on themes in adults collections of childhood  Creates illusion of causality between events The modern study of personality  Popular personality tests o Myers Briggs Type Indicator, assign people to 1/16 different types depending on the individuals scores  Objective tests o Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves  Factor analysis o Statistical method for analyzing the inter-correlations among various measures or test score; clusters of measures of scores that are highly correlated assumed to measure same underlying trait or ability  BIG FIVE o Extroversion vs. introversion  Outgoing vs. shy o Neuroticism versus emotional stability  Extent to which person suffers from anxiety traits, inability control impulses, tendency to feel negative emotions o Agreeableness vs. antagonism  Extent to which people are good natured or irritable, cooperative/abrasive, secure or suspicious o Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness  Degree to which people are responsible/undependable, persevering or quick to give up, o Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience o Lie at core of personality variations among individuals Genetic Influences on Personality  Don’t have to be human to have a personality, can be an animal  Heredity and Temperament o Temperaments  Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways, present in infancy and in many non-human species, assumed to be innate  Relativity, soothability  20% of infants highly reactive or non reactive  Highly reactive higher hormone stress, increased heart rates o Heredity and Traits  Heritabili
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