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Chapter 1

PS101 Chapter 1.docx

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Don Morgenson

PS101 Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology Development: From Speculation to Science  Prior to 1879 o Physiology and philosophy scholars  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Germany o Made psychology a discipline o First lab in 1879 Wilhelm  Leipzig to study o Set up labs in Europe and North America  G. Stanly Hall o First US lab in 1883  Between 1883-1893, 24 new labs in North America  James Mark Baldwin and James The Battle of the “Schools”: Structuralism Vs. Functionalism  Structuralism led by Edward Titchener o Analyzing consciousness o Introspection-observations of one’s own experience  Functionalism led by William James o Investigating the function/purpose o Led to mental testing, developmental patterns Who Won the Battle  Historians gave it to functionalists o No independent objective evaluation of a claim  No categories today  Applied psychology and Behaviourism o Behaviourism – early 1900’s - next major school Behaviourism  John B. Watson (1878-1958) US (founder)  Stimulus – any input from the environment John W. Nature Vs Nurture Debate  Nurture, not nature o All about environment we grow up in  Behaviourist school focuses on nurture  Focuses on stimulus-response relationships Sigmund Freud and Unconscious Mind  1856-1939: Austria  Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought  Unconscious processes influencing behaviour Freud’s Ideas: Controversy and Influence  Influenced by the unconscious  Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behaviour  Significant influence on the field of psychology BF Skinner: Behaviourism Revisited  1904-1990: United States  Environmental factors determined behaviour  Responses that led to positive outcomes are repeated  Beyond Freedom and Dignity (book) 1950’s: Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavi
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