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Chapter 2

PS101 Chapter 2 Notes

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Kathy Foxall

Chapter2-HowPsychologistsDoResearch Theory:system of assumptions that would explain phenomena Hypothesis: attempts to explain given behaviour Operationaldefinition:how the phenomena are to be observed/measured Principleoffalsifiability: predicting what will and will not happen Confirmationbias:tendency to only pay attention to info that confirms one’s own belief Representativesample: group from population that matches important characterisitcs - sample size is less critical than representatives (more accurate results) Descriptivemethods: describes/predicts behaviour but not necessarily casual explanations Research Methods in Psychology Casestudy:detailed description of individual being studied/treated - information (childhood, dreams) provides insight to person’s behaviour - unusual cases can shed light on situations that are unethical to study - sometimes misses vital information, person’s memories can be inaccurate - example: understanding development of person’s aggressive behaviour Observationalstudy:observes/records behaviour without interfering - Naturalisticobservation: how people/animals act in normal social environments - Laboratoryobservation:more control of situation, sophisticated environment - often useful in first stages of research program - observations can be biased, doesn’t always confirm cause and affect - example: describing nature of aggression in early childhood Tests: measure/evaluate personality, emotions, aptitudes, interests, abilities, values - evaluate psychological treatments, draws generalizations on human behaviour - Standardize: uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test - Norms:established standards of performance - Reliability: consistency of scores, from one time/place to another - Validity: must measure what it was set out to measure - difficult to construct tests that are reliable and valid - example: comparing personalities of aggressive and nonaggressive persons Surveys:asking people directly about experiences, attitudes, opinions - Volunteerbias: people that volunteer have certain opinions than those who stay quiet - provides large information on large numbers of people - responses can be inaccurate/unture, sample can be biased - example: finding out how common domestic
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