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Chapter 4

PS101 Chapter 4 Notes

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Kathy Foxall

Chapter4-TheBrain:SourceofMindandSelf Nervoussystem:gathers/processes info, produces response to stimuli, coordinates working of cells CentralNervousSystem PeripheralNervousSystem - receives, processes, interprets, stores - handles inputs/outputs of system incoming sensory info - sensory nerves carry messages to spinal - Spinalcord:collection of neurons and cord tissue from base of brain down back, - motor nerves send messages to muscles produces automatic spinal reflexes - Somaticsystem:nerves connected to - Brain sensory receptors, permits voluntary actions - Autonomicsystem:regulates internal organs and glands, Sympatheticsystem: mobilizes body and increases output of energy during stress, Parasympathetic system:relaxes body after stress response Communication Through Nervous System Neurons:nerve cells conduct electrochemical signals transmitting info to/from/within central nervous system Glialcells: support/nurture/insulate neurons - remove cellular debris when neurons die - enhance formation and maintenance of neural connections - Dendrites: branches receive info from other neurons, transmits info to cell body - Cellbody:contains biochemical machinery to keep neuron alive - Axon:extending fibre conducts impulses away from cell body to other cells - Myelinsheath:fatty material surrounding axon, speeds up conduction of impulses - Nodes: gaps between sections of myelin sheath Synapse:site where neurons communicate through - Synapticcleft: space separating two neurons - Actionpotential:caused by inflow of Na+ ions by electrical/chemical signals - neural impulse reaches axon terminal/synaptic bulb - synaptic vesicles open to release neurotransmitters - neurotransmitters diffuse across cleft towards receptor sites on receiving neuron’s dendrites - voltage shift is created - Excitatorychange:positive voltage shift increases chance of firing a neuron - Inhibitorychange:negative voltage shift decreases chance of firing a neuron - Reuptake: neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into sending neurons - Neurotransmitteragonist: excites, mimics effects on receiving neuron - Neurotransmitterantagonist:inhibits, occupies receptor site to block its action Neurogenesis: production of new neurons from immature stem cells Stemcells: immature cells renew themselves, have potential to develop into mature cells - cells from early embryos can develop into any type of cell in body Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin: sleep, appetite, temperature regulation, pain suppression, mood, low levels can cause depression Dopamine: voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion, pleasure, low levels can cause Parkinson’s disease Acetylcholine: muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory, emotion, low levels can cause Alzheimer’s disease Norepinephrine:increased heart rate, learning, memory, emotion, dreaming GABA:major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, abnormal levels can cause epilepsy Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter in brain, high levels can cause mult
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