Textbook Notes (369,035)
Canada (162,359)
Psychology (1,978)
PS101 (452)
Chapter 14

Psych 101 Detailed Textbook Notes: Chapter 14

9 Pages
97 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Kathy Foxall
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych Chapter 14 PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual Trait: a characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling Psychoanalysis: a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud; it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Psychodynamic theories: theories that explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual Freud and Psychoanalysis The Structure of Personality o Id  Defn: the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts  Present at birth  Reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motives to avoid pain and obtain pleasure  Contains two competing instincts:  Life or sexual instinct (fuelled by the libido)  Death or aggressive instinct  As energy builds in the id, tension results o Ego  Defn: the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control  Referee between the needs of instinct and the demands of society  Both conscious and unconscious o Superego  Defn: the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards  Represents morality and parental authority  Judges the activities of the id – praise and guilt where deserved  Partly conscious but largely unconscious  If a person feels anxious or threatened when the wishes of the id conflict with social rules, the ego has defence mechanisms o Defn: methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness  Five primary defence mechanisms: 1. Repression  When a threatening idea, memory, or emotion is blocked from consciousness  A frightening childhood experience she cannot remember 2. Projection  When a person’s own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else  Embarrassed about being a night rider – “those people are dirty-minded” 3. Displacement  When people direct their emotions (especially anger) toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings  A boy unable to express anger toward his father may take it out on his toys  Sublimation – when it serves a higher cultural or socially useful purpose 4. Regression  When a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development  8 year old boy anxious about divorce may regress to thumb sucking  Adults may regress to immature behaviour when they don’t get their way 5. Denial  When people refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening, that they have a problem, or that they are feeling a forbidden emotion  Protects a person’s self-image and preserves the illusion of invulnerability  It can’t happen to me The Development of Personality  Develops in a series of psychosexual stages o Defn: the idea that sexual energy takes different forms as the child matures; the stages are oral, anal, phallic (Oedipal), latency, and genital o Each new stage produces a certain amount of frustration, conflict, and anxiety o If these are not resolved, a child may remain fixated at the current stage  Oral stage o Occurs during the first year of life o Babies experience the world through their mouths o Adults fixated in this stage will seek oral gratification  Smoking, nail biting, overeating  Anal stage o Ages 2-3 o Toilet training and control of bodily wastes o Adults fixated in this stage might become anal retentive  Obsessive about neatness and cleanliness o Or anal expulsive  Messy and disorganized  Phallic (Oedipal) stage o Ages 3-6 o Most crucial stage for the formation of personality o The child unconsciously wishes to possess the parent of the other sex and to get rid of the parent of the same sex o Labelled the Oedipus complex after King Oedipus who killed his father and married his mother o Boys and girls go through this stage differently  Boys:  Discovering the pleasure and pride of having a penis  When they see a naked girl for the first time they are horrified  Believes her penis has been cut off by her powerful father  Causes the boy to repress his desire for his mother and identify with his father – superego has emerged  Girls:  Would panic that she only had a clit instead of a penis  Concludes that she had already lost her penis  Girls do not have the powerful motivating fear to give up their Oedipal feelings  Have a lingering sense of “penis envy”  When the Oedipus complex is resolved, the child’s personality is fundamentally formed  Child settles into the latency stage, and then the genital stage which begins at puberty  Freud welcomed women into the profession of psychoanalysis – and liked gays Other Psychodynamic Approaches Jungian Theory  One of Freud’s closest friends until it ended with a fight about the nature of the unconscious  All human beings share a vast collective unconscious containing universal memories, symbols, images, and themes, which he called archetypes o Defn: universal symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious  The shadow archetype reflects the prehistoric fear of wild animals and represents the bestial, evil side of human nature  People are motivated by their future goals and their desire to fulfill themselves  Among the first to identify extroversion/introversion as a dimension of personality  Psychotic breakdown after his split with Freud – supported the Nazis The Object-Relations School  Defn: psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother  Central problem is to find a balance between the need for independence and the need for others  The way we react to separations is determined by our experiences in the first year or two of life  The child creates a mental representation of the mother – kind or fierce, protective or rejecting  Children of both sexes identify first with the mother  Girls are treated as an extension of the mother  Boys need to break away to develop a masculine identity – mother encourages this Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories  Psychodynamic theories are guilty of three scientific failings: 1. Violating the principle of falsifiability  A theory that is impossible to disconfirm in principle is not scientific  Followers accept an idea because it seems right or they can relate  Anyone else is accused of being defensive or in denial 2. Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients  Freud often generalized from a few people, often in therapy, to all humans  Fails to confirm observations by studying larger samples - different ages  A child who masturbates is normal, and doesn’t mean they’ve been sexually molested 3. Basing theories of personality development on the retrospective accounts of adults  Failed to observe samples of children at different ages  Instead they created theories based on adult recollections of childhood  Memory is often inaccurate, influenced by past and present  Not getting along with mother – will think of all the times she was mean  Creates an illusion of causality  If A came before B, then A caused B  Ex. mother spent time in the hospital when child is at a young age, and today you feel shy and insecure in college, object-relations analyst might draw a connection when it could be many other reasons like being away from home  Following people from childhood to adulthood often get a different picture of causality from the one that emerges by looking backward THE MODERN STUDY OF PERSONALITY  Early Greek philosophers thought our personalities fell into four fundamental categories depending on mixes of bodily fluids o If you were an angry, irritable person – excess of choler o If you were a sluggish, unemotional person – excess of phlegm Popular Personality Tests  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator o Popular in business, motivational seminars, and matchmaking services o 2.5 million Americans a year take it o Assigns one of sixteen types  How the person scores on the dimensions of introverted or extroverted  And logical or intuitive o Not very reliable o Useless info to predict which types are apt to steal, take drugs, or be disloyal  Objective tests (inventories) o Defn: standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves o Provide information about hundreds of different aspects of personality  Ex. needs, values, interests, self-esteem, emotional problems, etc. Core Personality Traits  Not all traits have equal weight and significance in people’s lives  We have 5-10 central traits that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations o Some people see the world as hostile, others see it as fun  There are also secondary traits which are more changeable aspects of personality o Music preferences, habits, casual opinions  Factor analysis o Defn: statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit