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Chapter 1

Chapter One - The Sociological Perspective

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

Psychology Chapter One: The Development of Psychology: From Speculation to Science the Contribution of Wundt & Hall  Philosophy, Physiology & Psychology o Plato & Aristotle -> existence, mind & body,  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) o Studied in Germany(the place to study) -> University of Leipzig o Campaigned to make psychology its own discipline instead of a branch o Established the first research lab for psychology in 1879 which is claimed to be the “birth of psychology” o Primary focus was consciousness: the awareness of immediate experience (mind & mental process) o Graduates of Wundt’s program started labs across Europe but mainly America.  G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924)  *he looked and saw youth acting violent “storm and stress” which was the time of adolescence - > the time kids fought with their parents  *wrote a paper that in western society it’s the “norm” which is not true because it was an opinionated paper. “A myth a phalecy” creating more conflict o Attended John Hopkins University o Established the first laboratory for research in psych in America in 1883 o Between 1883 &1893 24 new labs developed in the North America. o James Mark Baldwin & James Gibson Hume from UofT helped established the American Psychology Association(APA) -> Stanley was the driving force o Wrote Americas first psychology journal Structuralism vs. Functionalism  Structuralism (Led by Edward Titchener) -> most researchers were men o Analyzed consciousness into basic elements & how they are related o Introspection: the careful, systematic observation of one’s conscious experiences  Auditory tones  Optical illusions  Visual stimuli o Con of introspection is that if you rely on solely on one’s reflection of conscious experience, there is no independent objective or outcome of it.  Functionalism (Led by William James -> joined the staff at Harvard) o He wrote the book “Principles of Psychology” o Was impressed by Charles Darwin’s “natural selection”: inheritable characteristics that allow you to survive and be passed on reproductively  Must mean that characteristics of species must serve a purpose or niche  Which helped him win the battle  Consciousness has flow and looking at elements is like looking at static points within the flow which he called the “stream of consciousness” o Focused on investigating function and purpose of consciousness(may have attracted women to the field of psychology) -> Margeret Flow Washburn was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in Psychology in the U.S (The Animal Mind)  Mental testing  Development patterns  Sex & Age differences o Mary Whiton Calkins was the first woman to serve as president for APA  Who won the battle? o *Structuralism is pointless and doesn’t lead to a discipline o William James is given much credit for Functionalism following up on introspections flaws of no independent outcome or evaluation o Today psychologists are no longer categorized into these factors o The descendants of functionalism applied psychology and behaviouralism (early 1900’s - > major school of thought in psychology Behaviouralism: Redefining Psychology  John B. Watson (1878-1958) -> Founder of Behaviouralism (drop consciousness) o Psychology: the study of behavior -> suggested anything said or done (but cannot study thoughts, wishes, feelings etc)  Behavior: overt or observable responses or activities  Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior  Study of unconsciousness abandoned o *took experience and research to form a science-> draw conclusions from behaviours o Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment o Replace opinion with reliable fact and knowledge o Nature Vs. Nurture* -> Watson argued for Nurture that we are made not born (the environment o *treatment leads to outcome(response) o Focus on stimulus(any detectable input from the environment)response relationships o S-R Psychology  Behaviouralism mainly began from Ivan Pavlov (Pavlov’s Dog) o Derived animal research in psychology -> no structuralism  Better anyway because they can exert considerable control over their subjects without contaminating factors o Was the first “pop” psychologist Freud & the Unconscious mind  Sigmund Freud(1866-1939): Austria o Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought o Unconscious process influencing behavior (*fears & relationships)  Unconscious: thoughts, memories and desires that are below the surface of conscious awareness but influence behavior greatly  Talked about sons and daughters urges for parents, and that they could just be fantasies  Believed humans were violent (the ID – bad, ego - balance, super ego – parent) o Began when he started treating mental disorders(irrational fears, obsessions & anxieties) -> called psychoanalysis o Based his theory of the unconscious such as the “Freudian slip” or the interpretation of dreams. o Psychological disturbances are caused from personal conflict within the unconscious.  Psychoanalytic theory: personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious roots of behavior. o He presumed that behavior is greatly influenced by sexual urges  Created resistance to Freud’s theory  Became well known in 1920 and gained credit in culture o G. Stanley Hall invited Freud in 1909 to a series of lectures at Clark University  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): U.S o Environmental factors determine behavior o Responses that lead to positive outcomes (a reward) are repeated while bad outcomes were not o Believed beyond dignity and freedom and that if you knew someone’s life experiences they could predict and that free will and making our own decisions are a myth. *Nature vs. Nurture o All behavior is predictable in ways through lawful terms (an arrow governed by the law of physics) -> free will is an illusion  Was not an attack on a free society The 1950’s: Opposition to psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism  Said that both theories were dehumanizing  Opposition gro
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