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Chapter 2

Psych Chapter Two

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Lawrence Murphy

Psychology Chapter Two: The Research enterprise in Psychology A Scientific Approach: A search for Laws  Basic assumption: events are governed by some lawful order (nothing is random or predictable) there is an order for things. We can establish an understanding of human beings  Goals: o Measurement and description intelligence and school) o Understanding and prediction o Application and control (certain people get to do things while others don’t)  Evolution predicts certain things (have a hypothesis) if rocks are a certain size or age in the Atlantic Ocean bottom we should find this and this. -> Then you go look  Scientific Method: Terminology o Operational definitions are used to clarify precisely what is meant by each variable.. o Participants or subjects are the organisms whose behavior is systematically observed in a study (asking questions, heart rate) o Data collection techniques allow for empirical……………………………….. o Challenge with measuring intelligence: we don’t exactly know what it is and how to describe it. o Statistics are used to analyze data and decide whether hypotheses were supported  Findings are shared through reports at scientific meetings and in scientific journals- periodicals that publish technical and scholarly material  Advantages of the scientific method: clarity of communication and relative intolerance of error  ** empirical: derived from or guided by experience or experiment o Research methods: general strategies for conducting scientific studies  Qualitative  Quantitative  Steps in a Scientific Investigation o 1) Formulate a testable hypothesis (students who use computers) o 2) Select the research method and design (observe the students – take down names) o 3) Collect the data (count the amount in students) o 4) Analyze the data and draw conclusions (quality if you allow every possible chance for any outcome to be true) o 5) Report finding (not trying to prove things true)  Experiment Research – Expirimental Group -> people who get the asprin o Experiment: manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions so that resulting changes in another variable can be observed  Detection of cause and effect relationships o Independent variable (IV)= variable manipulated o Dependent Variable (DV) = variable affected by manipulation  How does X affect Y (how do strict parents affect students grades?)  How does (IV) affect (DV  Control Group: similar subjects who do not receive special treatment -> people who don’t get asprin o The Logic  Two groups alike in all respects (random assignment)
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