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Chapter 1

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Don Morgenson

Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology Psychology:  The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it  Profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this to practical problems  Blossomed in Germany  Greek, two words, “psyche” meaning soul and “logos”- study of a subject  The study of the mind  Is practical, but more of a way of thinking  Provides a way of building knowledge that is relatively accurate and dependable Psychologists:  Seek to describe, explain, and predict the occurrence of such behavior  Often offer possible explanations, suggestions in order to cope for behavior William Wundt (1832-1920):  1881 established the first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology  Due to his great success he is known as the founder of psychology  In 1874, he declared that the new psychology should be science modeled  Wundt believed that psychology’s primary focus was: o Consciousness: The awareness of immediate experience Stanley Hall (1846-1924):  Studied briefly with Wundt  Important contributor to rapid growth of psychology in America-19 century  Established Americas first research lab in psych -John Hopkins University (1883)  1887- Launched Americas first psychology journal  He was the driving force behind the American Psychological Association (APA) American Psychological Association:  The worlds largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology  155,000 members and affiliates The Battle of The Schools (Overview) 1. Advocates of structuralism argued that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements 2. Advocates of Functionalism argued that Psychology should investigate the purpose of consciousness 3. Behaviorism asserted that psychology should study only observable behavior Schools of Psychology: 1. Structuralism:  Emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener (emigrated to US in 1892)  Based on the notion that psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and investigate how these elements are related  Structuralists wanted to identify fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations, feelings, and images  Most of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch  To examine the contents of consciousness, strucrualists depended on the method of: o Introspection, the careful, systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience 2. Functionalism:  Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure.  Charles Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection: o Heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time.  Psychology should investigate the functions rather then the structure of consciousness  Functionalism had a more lasting impact on psychology, as it fostered the emergence of behaviorism and applied psychology 3. Behaviorism:  Early 1900’s Behaviorism became another school to psychology  John B. Watson (1878-1958) founded Behaviorism o Is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior o Watson proposed psychologists should focus exclusively on behaviors that they could observe directly  Behavior refers to any observable response or activity by an organism  Nature vs. Nurture: o Nature: Genetic Inheritance o Nurture: Environment and Experience  “Stimuli”: any detectable input from the environment o Can range from light and sound waves to complex inputs such as advertisements on TV, or sarcastic remarks by a friend  Behaviorism is often referred to as “Stimulus response (S-R) Psychology)  Most studies were on Animals, rather than Humans Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):  Australian Physician  His theories made him one of the most controversial intellectual figure of modern times  His approach to psychology (1900/1953) grew out of his efforts to treat mental disorders  He treated people troubled by psychological problems (anxiety, irrational fears) o That procedure was called Psychoanalysis (World Known in 1920)  This theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior  His work with patients and his own self exploration persuaded Freud of Unconsciousness o The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence or behavior  Psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level  Freud’s theory was not entirely new. It came from the belief that people are fully aware of the forces affecting their behavior.  Freud believes that people are not the master of their own minds  Believed, that behavior is greatly influenced by how people cope with sexual urge B.F Skinner (1904-1990):  He arguably became the most famous scientist of his time  He came up with Radical Behaviorism o Represented earlier forms of behaviorism and neo-behaviorism o Emphasized how environmental factors mold behavior  He acknowledged an organisms behavior is influenced by its biological endowment  He argued, psychology could understand and predict behavior adequately without resorting to physiological explanations  The fundamental principle of behavior documented by skinner: o Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes o Organisms don’t tend to repeat responses that lead to natural or negative outcomes o We all learn through the method: Reward and Reinforcement  Behavioral principles are now used in schools, mental hospitals, factories  Stated that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli o Your behavior is determined in predictab
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