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Chapter 2

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Lawrence Murphy

Theory Organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain specified set of phenomena and their interrelations Hypothesis Statement that attempts to predicts or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or variables and are empirically tested Operational Precise definition of term in hypothesis, which specifies the operations for definition observing and measuring process or phenomenon being defined Principle of Principle that scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough falsifiability to expose theory to possibility of disconfirmation; theory must predicts what will and won't happen Confirmation bias Tendency to look for/pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief Representative Group of individuals, selected from popl'n for study, which matches the popl'n sample on important characteristics such as age and sex Descriptive Methods that yield descriptions of behaviour but not necessarily casual methods explanations Case study Detailed description of particular individual being studies or treated Observational Study where researcher carefully and systematically observes and records study behaviour w/o interfering w/ behaviour; it may involve either naturalistic/laboratory observation Psychological tests Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values Standardize In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test Norms In test construction, established standards of performance Reliability In test construction, consistency of scores derived from test, from one time and place to another Validity Ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Surveys Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions Volunteer bias A shortcoming of findings derived from sample of volunteers instead of representative sample; volunteers may differ from those who didn't volunteer Correlational Descriptive study that looks for consistent relation b/w two phenomena study Correlation Measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another Variables Characteristics of behaviour or experience that can be measured or described by numeric scale Positive Two variable increase/decrease together correlation Negative One variable increases, while other decreases correlation Coefficient of Measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00 correlation Experiment Controlled test of hypothesis in which researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another Independent Variable which experimenter manipulates variable Dependent Variable that experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of variable independent variable Control condition In experiment, condition where participants aren't exposed to same treatment as in experimental condition Random Procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which assignment each individual has same probability as any other of being assignment to a given group Placebo Inactive substance/fake treatment used as control in experiment Single-blind study Experiment where participants don't know whether they're in experimental or control group Experimenter Unintended changes in study participants' behaviour due to cues inadvertently effects given by experimenter Double-blind Experiment where neither experimenter or participants know who is in control study group and experimental group Field research Descriptive/experimental research conducted in natural setting outside lab Descriptive Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data statistics Arithmetic mean Avg; sum divided by number of numbers Standard Measure of variability; indicates avg difference b/w scores in distribution and deviation their mean Inferential Statistical procedure; allows researchers to draw inferences about how statistics statistically meaningful results are Significance tests Statistical test that shows how likely study's results occurred by chance Cross-sectional Study where people (or animals) of different ages compared at a given time study Longitudinal study Study where people (or animals) followed and periodically reassessed over period of time Effect size Amount of variance among scores in study accounted for by independent variable Meta-a
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