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Jim Mc Cutcheon

10/27/2013 8:31:00 AM Defining Personality A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual Pattern may consist of many distinctive traits Trait: a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling Military, or, police force or, air Canada will look for a certain type of person and require a personality test Psychodynamic Theories Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Originally formulated by Sigmund Freud Classified as psychodynamic as explains personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual The Structure of Personality (Freud) Id: Part of personality that contains inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual (libido) and aggressive impulses Ego: Part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self- control Superego: The part of personality that represents conscience morality, and social standards *Iceberg theory, the top is our conscience showing. Everything underneath unseen is our true self* Defense Mechanisms When the Id and Superego are in conflict, the Ego deals with this tension through the use of defense mechanisms Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatened thoughts from entering consciousness Many mechanisms proposed but some more common than others Types of Defense Mechanisms: 1. Repression: the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious 2. Projection: a person’s unacceptable or threatening feelings being repressed and then attributed to someone else 3. Displacement: when people direct their emotions (especially anger) toward things, animals, or other people that are not the real object of their feelings called sublimation when serves a higher cultural or social purpose 4. Reaction Formation: when a feeling that produces unconscious anxiety is transformed into its opposite in consciousness 5. Regression: when a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development (age wise) 6. Denial: when people refuse to admit something unpleasant is happening, that they have a problem, or that they are feeling a forbidden emotion protects self image and preserves illusion of invulnerability Development of Personality Freud’s Psychosexual Stages A series of different forms of sexual energy into which personality develops as the child matures Stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital Conflict and anxiety at each stage that must be resolved or will become fixated at that level Freud says that fixations in adulthood can be related back to child hood stages Oedipus Complex: conflict in the phaliic stage where a child wants parents of opposite sex and sees the same sex parents as a rival Electra Complex: (females) girl desires father, but realizes she doesn’t have a penis…penis envy develops Other Psychodynamic Approaches Jungian theory and Collective Unconsciousness (Carl Jung) The universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all cultures Archetypes: symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams Shadow – bestial, evil side of nature Animal/animus – feminine and masculine (respectively) Introversion/Extraversion as dimension of personality Object-relations school Infant attachment to mother and mental representation of mother ( e.g. type of person she is) Representation of adults affects personality throughout life, influencing how a person related to others We see other people like this person “your just like my mother” Evaluating psychodynamic theories Psychodynamic theories guilty of three scientific fallings 1. Violating the principle of falsifiability evolution (scientific) vs. creation… 2. Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical (unusual) patients 3. Basing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts of adults How to Avoid the “Barnum Effect” Horoscopes…thinking it always relates to yourself Handwriting trick with personality written on the back… When a person finds meaning in statements that could apply to many people Beware of all-purpose descriptions that could apply to anyone Count the misses as well as the hits Thinking of mom everyday and one time she calls, count the misses of every other day you think of her and she doesn’t call Modern Study of Personality Objective Inventories Standardization questionnaires requiring responses Typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves E.g. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory E.g. multidimensional personality questionnaire http://psychcorp.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en- us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=MMPI-2&Mode=summary Core Personality Traits G. Allport evaluated personality traits based on their influence on a person’s life Central traits: aspects of personality that reflect a characteristic way of behaving, dealing with others, and reaching to new situations Secondary traits: changeable aspects of personality The Big Five Most researchers agree on the centrality of five core traits in personality 1. Extroversion versus introversion 2. Neuroticism (negative emotionality) versus emotional stability 3. Agreeableness versus antagonism 4. Conscientiousness versus impulsiveness 5. Openness to experience versus resistance to new experience The Big Five: Culture and Age people become more conscientious over
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