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Jim Mc Cutcheon

10/27/2013 8:47:00 AM The Early Days of Treatment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Izmyru5T_w. Biological Treatments Contemporary view alternates between mental disorders as diseases (medical treatment) and emotional problems (psychological treatment) Drug treatments on the rise with growing recognition of biological and genetic components to disorders Medications that alter the production of or response to neurotransmitters in the brain Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) Drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Most designed to block or reduce the sensitivity of brain receptors that respond to dopamine Reduce agitation, delusions, and hallucinations Side effects such as muscular rigidity (hardness), tremors, and involuntary muscle movements (tardive dyskinesia) Antidepressant Drugs Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety Produce unpleasant physical reactions (dry mouth, headache, nausea, constipation, weight gain, restlessness) Three classes of antidepressants: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Tricyclic antidepressants Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Serotonin levels is lower in depressed people Tranquilizers and Lithium Anti-anxiety Drugs (Tranquilizers) Drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients who complain of unhappiness, anxiety, or worry Useful as short-term treatment of panic disorder Increase activity of GABA People who experience anxiety consume alcohol Mouse party* Lithium carbonate Drug frequently given to people suffering from bipolar disorder (moderates norepinephrine and stops overstimulation from glutamate) Drug Treatments Cautions About Drug Treatments Limitations to drug treatments: 1. The Placebo effect the apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patients expectations or hope rather than to the drug itself 2. High relapse and dropout rates antipsychotic + antidepressants unpleasant side-effects 3. Dosage problems therapeutic window: the amount that is enough but not too much 4. Disregard for effective, possibly better, nonmedical treatments 5. Unknown long-term risks 6. Untested off-label uses drugs are sometimes prescribed for conditions outside their intended use Viagra: originally for blood pressure Direct Brain Intervention Psychosurgery Any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved in emotional disorders or violent, impulsive behavior (e.g., prefrontal lobotomy) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced Newer alternatives like trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) used for milder stimulation Psychodynamic Therapy Relied on Freud‟s method of psychoanalysis and traditionally involved free association Ice berg analogy Evolved into many psychodynamic or “depth” therapies Major element is transference process where client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions (e.g., feelings about parents) onto the therapists Behavioral Therapy Therapy that applies principles of classical and operant conditioning to help people change self-defeating or problematic behaviors - Use a variety of methods depending on the problem or situations exposure, systematic desensitization, behavioral self-monitoring, skills training http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qy_mIEnnlF4 Behavioral Techniques 1. Exposure Graduated exposure: method where a person suffering from a phobia or panic attacks is gradually taken into the feared situation or exposed to a traumatic memory until the fear subsides Flooding: a form of exposure treatment in which the client is taken directly into the feared situation until his or her anxiety subsides 2. Systematic desensitization step-by-step process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experience Based on counterconditioning: process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response 3. Behavioral Self-Monitoring A method of keeping careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behaviour to be changed 4. Skills Training An effort to teach the client skills the he or she may lack, as well as new constructive behaviours to replace self-defeating ones Cognitive Therapy Form of therapy designed to identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking and, hence, to reduce negative emotions (If I don‟t get this, life is not worth living…I need everyone to like me) rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT): designed to challenge client‟s unrealistic thoughts (e.g., overgeneralizations, catastrophizing) (Ellis) Other forms include cognitive therapy for depression (Beck) and stress inoculation for anxiety (Meichenbaum) Stress inoculation Used to treat anxiety Consists of three stages Education phase: individual is taught about anxiety and works
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