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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 – Consciousness.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mindi Foster
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5 – Consciousness (Personal Awareness) Consciousness  External events  Internal states  You as a unique person  Your thoughts about your experiences Circadian Rhythms  24 hour rhythm, we have several 24 hour cycles in our bodies  Falling asleep is best when you core body temperature decreases  Eye  Suprachiasmatic nucleus  Hormones  Brain/behavior o Eye: receptors in eye react to light (cones) and darkness (rods) o Suprachiasmatic nucleus = in the hypothalamus o Hormones:  Am: cortisol (to get in gear for the day)  Get up  Pm: melatonin (Dracula hormone)  Sleep Sleep Stages (ultradian rhythm)  Last ninety to one hundred and twenty minutes  It is the most inconsistent patterns that you are going to see  Awake  The beta waves are characterized by these inconsistencies given all sensory input  Drowsy  Alpha waves are prominent  These have a higher amplitude then beta waves  Theses waves would be seen when you are relaxing or meditating  Stage 1 Sleep  Theta waves prominent  Very light sleep  When you are drifting but could easily be awakened  Heart rate and breathing begins to slow  When you feel as if you are falling  Lucid dreams occur during this stage  This stage is only 1-7 minutes, we spend more time in stage 1 sleep as we get older  Stage 2 Sleep  If woken, you will have no recollection of being asleep  Sleep spindles and mixed EEG activity  Twitch  K complex  Consolidation of new information  Slow-wave sleep (stage 3 and 4 sleep)  o Progressively more delta waves o Deep breathing o Muscles completely relax o Hard to wake someone from this stage o This is where sleep walking and talking occurs in this stage o In this phase, we are not yet paralyzed therefore muscles can move o If we were to wake during this we would be extremely disoriented  This occurs when you are drunk, in schizophrenia, dementia  Cycling o 1  2  3  4  3  2  REM  2  3  4  3 2  REM …. o REM gets longer throughout the night  REM  Heart rate is increasing  Blood pressure increasing  Rapid Eye movements increasing  Genitals active (penis erect, clitoris engorged)  Muscle paralysis  A sudden awakening from this phase will leave you still paralyzed  Dreams that occur in this phase are remembered  Babies do more REM sleep Neural basis of sleep  Sleep deprivation o Partial (sleep restriction) = impairment o Selective deprivation (REM, deep) = need for more Dr Wood Lecture Neural Underpinnings of sleep  Not one unitary element - constellation  At centre – ascending reticular activating system o Reticular formation – arousal o Pons – REM sleep  Serotonin, GABA Sleep Deprivation  Type of sleep deprivation o Short-term (up to 45 hours without sleep) o Long-term (more than 45 hours) o Partial (no more than 5 hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights)  Negative impact on functioning o Mood suffered most 9irritable) o Followed by decrements in cognitive and physical performance  Underestimate negative effects o Takes several nights to recover o Do not make up all sleep time lost o REM rebound to make up Dreams  Small number in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) o Have very boring dreams  daily residue  Almost all dreams are in REM o Vivid, emotional, story like, can be bizarre o Lucid dreams, to try to manipulate your emotions in your dreams  There is evidence that there might be an evolutionary advantage to dreaming  No agreed-upon theory  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory o Wish fulfillment  Humans want to do what they want to do, and in our dreams, we are able to fulfill these wishes in our dreams. o Gratification of unconscious desires/needs (sexual and aggressive urges)  During the Victorian era, there was a repression of sexual and aggressive urges and this repression still continues to be present in our society. These two emotions were not socially accepted.  Two important concepts o Manifest content  the actual story line  “Surface” story of dream o Latent Content  Disguised psychological meaning of dream  Today – look at manifest
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