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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Mamdouh Shoukri
Semester
Summer

Description
Lesson 11 History of psychologya Structuralism i Wilhelm Wundt First person to announce to make psychology a science Concentrate in sensation perception reaction times imagery and attention avoided learning personality and abnormal behavior Observe analyze and describe Wundt wanted to break down the structure of consciousness to understand how it is built He defined psychology as an analysis of consciousness into its basic elementswhat ii Psychologys intellectual parents were 19thcentury philosophy and physiology disciplines that shared an interestin the mysteries of the mind iii In 1879 Wundt established the first forma laboratory iv 1881 Wundt established the first journal devoted to publishing research on psychology v Wundt 1874 declared that the new psychology should be a science modeled like physics and chemistry vi Structuralism emerged through the leadership of Edward Titchener believed that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements vii Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are relatedviii The structuralists reliance on introspection got them in trouble Introspection is a systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experience ix As practiced by the structuralists introspection required training to make the subjectthe person being studiedmore objective and more aware Once trained subjects were typically exposed to auditory tones optical illusions and visual stimuli under carefully controlled and systematically varied conditions and were asked to analyze what they experienced x Problem only described consciousness and this process were not objective as every person will have their own experience xi For example different taste of a same orange hear the word of triangleb Functionalism i William James emphasized the adaptive function or purpose of behavior and consciousness rather than structure Why and how Inspire by Darwin of natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over timePublish a book principles of psychology 1890 ii Natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time iii Functionalism fostered the development of two important descendantsbehaviorism and applied psychology iv James argued that the structuralists approach missed the real nature of conscious experience Consciousness he argues consists of a continuous flow of thoughts James wanted to understand the stream of consciousnessv James methodology was observation of the real world rather than inside an individuals experience
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