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Chapter 12

Psych Chapter 12.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Chapter 12; Personality Personality is used as a way of predicting what someone will do-to predict their behaviour Dominated by “grand theories” that attempt to explain a great many facets of behaviour Personality- an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits Distinctiveness is central to the concept of personality; it is used to explain why not everyone acts the same way in similar situations Personality trait-a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations  Adjectives such as impulsive, suspicious, & moody describe dispositions that represent personality traits Factor analysis-correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables 5 factor Model of Personality Traits Designed by McCrae & Costa, idea that personality traits are derived from just 5 higher-order traits  Extraversion; outgoing, sociable, upbeat  Neuroticism; anxious, hostile, self-conscious  Openness to experience; curiosity, imaginativeness, vivid fantasy  Agreeableness; sympathetic, trusting, co-operative  Conscientiousness; diligent, well organized, punctual The Big 5 Model has been supported in many studies; these five traits have been characterized as the ‘longitude & latitude’ along which personality should be mapped Psychodynamic Perspectives Psychodynamic theories-all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focus on unconscious mental forces Freud’s Theory  Freud defined personality structure in terms of 3 components ; the id, ego, & superego which are routinely involved in an ongoing series of internal conflicts  Described 3 levels of awareness: the conscious, preconscious, & unconscious processes. His theory emphasized the importance of unconscious processes.  Theorized that conflicts centering on sex & aggression are especially likely to lead to significant anxiety.  According to Freud, anxiety and other unpleasant emotions such as guilt are often warded off by defence mechanisms. (rationalization, repression, projection, displacement, reaction formation, regression, identification, sublimation)  Believed that the first 5 years of life are extremely influential in shaping adult personality. Described a series of 5 psychosexual stages of development:  Oral, Anal, phallic, latency, genital  Certain experiences during these stages can have lasting effects on adult personality (fixation )  Resolution of the oedipal complex is thought to be particularly critical to healthy development Jung  Jung’s most innovative concept was the collective unconscious, a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past.  Called these ancestral memories archetypes. Archetypes are emotionally charged images that have universal meaning.  Jung provided the first description of introversion & extroversion Adler  His approach was called individual psychology  Adler’s individual psychology emphasizes how people strive for superiority to compensate for their feelings of inferiority.  Explained personality disturbances in terms of overcompensation & inferiority complexes.  Focused attention of the birth order as a factor governing personality Psychodynamic theories have produced many ground breaking insights about the unconscious, role of internal conflict, & importance of early childhood experiences in personality development. Psychodynamic theories have been criticized for their: 1. poor testability 2. inadequate base of empirical evidence 3. male centred view 4. Unrepresentativeness of their samples Behavioural Perspectives Behaviourism- a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour Interest in personality began to pick up after Dollard & Miller’s attempt to translate Freudian ideas into behavioural terminology Behavioural theories explain how personality is shaped through learning Skinner  Little interest in unobservable cognitive processes & embraced a strong determinism  Skinner’s followers view personality as a collection of response tendencies ties to specific stimulus situations  Assumes that personality development is a lifelong process in which response tendencies are shaped & reshaped by learning, especially operant conditioning. Bandura  Social cognitive theory; focuses on how cognitive factors such as expectancies regulate learned behaviour  Bandura’s concept of observational learning accounts for the acquisition of responses from models (model: a person whose behaviour is observed by another)  High-self efficiency has been related to successful health regimens, academic success, athletic performance, etc.  Emphasized self-efficacy :one’s beli
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