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Chapter 4

Psych Exam Review Chapter 4.docx

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Don Morgenson

Psych Exam Review Chapter 4: Perception & Sensation  Fechner wanted to know: For any given sense, what’s the weakest detectable stimulus? (Minimum amount of light needed for a person to see?) o Threshold: dividing point between energy levels that do & don’t have a detectable effect o Absolute threshold for specific type of sensory input is minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect  “Stimulus intensity detected 50% of the time”  Review table 4.1 (pg. 133)  Weber’s Law states size of a just noticeable difference (JND) is a constant proportion of size of initial stimulus o As stimuli increase in magnitude, the JDN becomes larger  Fechner’s Law states the magnitude of a sensory experience is proportional to number of JNDs that the stimulus causing experience is above absolute threshold  Perceptions cannot be measured on absolute scales  Perception without awareness can take place (the advertisement where it says sex in the ice-cubes to attract consumers unconsciously)  Sensory adaptation: gradual decline in sensitivity due to pro-longed stimulation o Ex. Jumping into cold water= cold at first, okay after few moments. (your body adapts to the temperature) o Sensory adaptation is automatic, and built in Vision  Most objects don’t emit light, they reflect it (sun, lamps, fireflies are exception)  In bright light, pupils constrict to take advantage of shaper image. In dimmed light, pupils dilates to allow more light into retina  Saccades are tiny movements of our eyes that we’re unconscious of  Retina is a piece of the central nervous system which happens to be located in eyeball  Dark adaptation: process in which eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination (walking into dark theatre on bright day) o Light adaptation is opposite  Colour is a psychological interpretation, not a physical property of light itself  Colour blindness doesn’t mean someone cannot see colours at all (that’s very rare) it’s usually that some cannot see red, green, or blue. These are called dichromats  The eye has 3 types of cones – each type being more sensitive to different band of wavelengths 1. Blue/yellow (short wavelength) 2. Red/green (medium wavelength) 3. Black/white (long wavelengths)  Reversible figure: drawing that’s compatible with 2 diff. interpretations that can shift back & forth  Bottom up processing is a progression form from individual elements to a whole (ex. From basic lines turns into image of a Stop Sign as a whole)  Top down processing is the opposite (stop signbasic lines, its elements)  Principles that describe how visual system organizes a scene into discrete forms: o Figure & ground: figure is thing being looked at, ground is background against which it stands o Proximity: things that are closer to each other seem
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