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Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Carolyn Ensley
Semester
Fall

Description
AP Psychology Outline Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology Red – Definition of Key Terms Green – Important People & Contributions Blue – Important Points 1. How Psychology Developed a. Psychology – The Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes. b. Mental Processes = Physiological and Cognitive Processes. c. Psychology comes from two Greek words. “Psyche” = Soul, and “Logos” = the Study of a Subject d. Psychology became a Scientific Discipline In 1870’s=- “study of the mind” e. Aristotle’s theory of memory was 3 principles of similarity, contrast and contiguity 2. The Contributions of Wundt and Hall a. Disciplines of Philosophy + Physiology = Psychology b. Wilhelm Wundt i. German Professor. ii. Campaigned to make Psychology an independent Scientific Discipline. iii. Established first Psychology Laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig. iv. Established First Psychology Journal for research in 1881. v. 1879 is the Birth of Psychology. vi. Wilhelm Wundt is the founder of Psychology. vii. Wundt Considered the Consciousness the primary focus of Psychology (mind and mental processes) viii. Many students under Wundt left Germany for America and established Psychology Labs in America. c. G. Stanley Hall i. Student of Wundt ii. Important to growth of Psychology in America. • Established First Research Laboratory in America at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. • Established First American Psychology Research Journal in 1887. • Father of American Psychological Association and first President. Founded in 1892. 3. Structuralism VS Functionalism a. Competing Schools of Psychology Thought. Structuralism & Functionalism. b. Structuralism i. Led by Edward Titchener, of Cornell University. ii. STRUCTURALISM - THE TASK OF PSYCHOLOGY IS TO ANALYZE CONSIOUSNESS INTO ITS BASIC ELEMENTS AND INVESTIGATE HOW THESE ELEMENTS ARE RELATED. iii. Wanted to examine fundamental components of conscious existence like sensations, feelings, and images. iv. Introspection – The careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience. • Primary Method used for study by Structuralism. Functionalism 1. Led by William James, Formal Training in Medicine. Harvard University. 2. Functionalism – Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. 3. Principles of Psychology (1890) became standard reading for generations of psychologists and most influential text in history of psychology. (William James) 4. Psychology is deeply embedded in Cultural and Intellectual Influences. a. Natural Selection: Using Darwin’s theory of natural Selection. Typical Psychological characteristics must serve a purpose. b. Studies the Function of consciousness, rather than the Structure of it. 5. Wanted to understand the “stream of consciousness” not the “elements” of consciousness. 6. Functionalists brought interest in mental testing, patterns of development, effective education practices, and behavioral differences between sexes. 7. James Cattell and John Dewey Who Won? 1. Structuralists brought Laboratory research. 2. Functionalism developed two modern schools of Psychology thought: a. Applied Psychology b. Behavioralism 4. Sigmund Freud 1. Unconscious – Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior. 2. Based on a Variety of Observations a. Slips of the tongue b. Dreams 3. Theorized that Psychological disturbances are caused by personal conflicts existing at unconscious level. 4. Psychoanalytic Theory – Attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. 5. Suggested people are not the Masters of their own Minds. 6. Suggested Behavior is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges. a. Highly Scandalous at the time where sex was taboo. 7. Freud’s work highly engulfed in heated debate. 5. Behaviorism 1. Founded by John B. Watson 2. Behaviorism – Theoretical Orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. 3. Argued to change study of Psychology from study of Conscious to study of Observable Behavior. 4. Behavior – Refers to any Observable response or activity by an organism. 5. Watson argued completely for Experience in the Nature (genetic inheritance) VS Nurture( environment) debate. 6. Based lots of Study upon Stimuli – Response Psychology. a. Led to rise of using Animals in experiments as Controls. 6. B.F. Skinner Questions Free Will A. Returned to observable behaviors (as previously Watson had). B. Insisted internal thoughts could not be studied scientifically. C. Emphasized how environmental factors mold behavior. D. Fundamental principle: Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes. E. All behavior is governed by external stimuli ( behavior is determined by predictable ways by lawful principles F. Book: Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) 7. Humanists A. 1950’s revolted against “dehumanizing” schools of psychoanalysis and behaviorism. B. Humanism: a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, and their freedom and potential for personal growth. 1. Optimistic view of human nature. 2. Humans are fundamentally different from other animals, so research on animals has little relevance. 3. Contributions to treatments for psychological problems and disorders. C. Carl Rogers 1. Human behavior is governed by “self-concept” 2. Must take into account the fundamental human drive toward personal growth. D. Abraham Maslow VIII. Applied Psychology A. Branch concerned with everyday practical problems. B. Before WWI, not concerned with practical applications. C. Four areas: 1. Clinical 2. Counseling 3. Educational and School 4. Industrial and Organizational IX. Clinical Psychology A. Concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. B. During WWII many psychologists worked in clinical psychology. X. Cognitive Psychology A. Cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge (consciousness) B. Renewed interest in cognition. C. Jean Piaget (1954) 1. Studied children’s cognitive development. D. Noam Chomsky (1957) 1. Language. E. Herbert Simon= Problem solving studies- won Nobel Prize (1978). XI. Psychology and Cultural Diversity A. Mostly been a Western enterprise. B. Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways. C. Neglecting cultural values diminishes the value of their work. XII. Evolutionary Psychology A. Behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. B. Mens vs. Womens visual-spatial ability. 1. Men were traditionally hunters – visual skills. 2. Women were gatherers – spatial skills. 13. Psychology Today 7 Major Research Areas in Psychology v. Developmental Psychology vi. Social Psychology vii. Experimental Psychology viii. Physiological Psychology ix. Cognitive Psychology x. Personality xi. Psychometrics Applied Psychology Areas (Professional Areas) • Clinical Psychology a. Most Practiced Professional Psychology • Counseling Psychology • Educational & School Psychology • Industrial & Organizational Psychology Many Psychologists work on both Research & Application • Some Work as Consultants, therapists, and counselors on a part-time basis. Difference between Psychology & Psychiatry • Both Analyze and treat Psychological disorders • Psychiatry – A branch o
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