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PS101 – Textbook Notes part 1
PS101 – Textbook Notes part 1

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School
Wilfrid Laurier University
Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
All
Semester
Fall

Description
PS101ChapterOneNotesPsychologyhasdevelopedfromphilosophicalspeculationsaboutthemindandearlyworkinphysiologyintoamodernscienceDerivesfromtwoGreekwordsoPsychemeaningthesouloLogosmeaningthestudyofsubjectKnowledgewhichisinbornisknownasnativismKnowledgewhichisgainedthroughexperienceisknownasempiricismAristotlebelievedmemoriesaretheresultofthreeprinciplesofassociationoSimilaritycontrastandcontiguityWundtmountedacampaigntomakepsychologyanindependentdisciplineStructuralismbasedonthenotionthatthetaskofpsychologyistoanalyzeconsciousnessintoitsbasicelementsandinvestigatehowtheseelementsarerelatedIntrospectionthecarefulsystematicselfobservationofonesownconsciousexperienceFunctionalismbasedonthebeliefthatpsychologyshouldinvestigatethefunctionorpurposeofconsciousnessratherthanitsstructureNaturalSelectionheritablecharacteristicsthatprovideasurvivalorreproductiveadvantagearemorelikelythanalternativecharacteristicstobepassedontosubsequentgenerationsandthuscometobeselectedovertimeBehaviourismFoundedbyJohnBWatsonisatheoreticalorientationbasedonthepremisethatscientificpsychologyshouldstudyonlyobservablebehaviorBehaviourreferstoanyovertobservableresponseoractivitybyanorganismStimulusanydetectableinputfromtheenvironmentBehaviourismsstimulusresponseapproachcontributedtotheriseofanimalresearchinpsychologyReviewofKeyPointsthPsychologysintellectualparentswereclassicphilosophyand19centuryphilosophyandphysiologydisciplinesthatsharedaninterestinthemysteriesofthemindPsychologybecameanindependentdisciplinewhenWilhelmWundtestablishedthefirstpsychologicalresearchlaboratoryin1879atLeipzigGermanyHedefinedpsychologyasthescientificstudyofconsciousnessthThenewdisciplinegrewrapidlyinNorthAmericainthelate19centuryasillustratedbyGStanleyHallscareerHallestablishedAmericasfinestresearchlabinpsychologyandfoundedtheAmericanPsychologyAssociationThestructualistsledbyEdwardTitchenerbelievedthatpsychologyshoulduseintrospectiontoanalyzeconsciousnessintoitsbasicelementsThefunctionalistsinspiredbytheideasofWilliamJamesbelievedthatpsychologyshouldfocusonthepurposeandadaptivefunctionsofconsciousnessFunctionalismpavedthewayforbehaviourismandappliedpsychologyBehaviouristsledbyJohnBWatsonarguedthatpsychologyshouldstudyonlyobservablebehaviourThustheycampaignedtoredefinepsychologyasthescienceofbehaviourEmphasizingtheimportanceoftheenvironmentoverhereditythebehaviouristsbegantoexplorestimulusresponserelationshipsoftenusinglaboratoryanimalsassubjectsTheUnconsciouscontainsthoughtsmemoriesanddesiresthatarewellbelowthesurfaceofconsciousawarenessbutthatnonethelessexertgreatinfluenceonbehaviourPsychoanalytictheoryattemptstoexplainpersonalitymotivationandmentaldisordersbyfocusingonunconsciousdeterminantsofbehaviouroBy1920psychoanalytictheorywaswidelyknownaroundtheworldbecauseitconflictedwiththespiritofthetimesinpsychologyoThisturnedouttobewrongaspsychoanalyticideassteadilygainedcredenceinthecultureatlargeinfluencingthoughtinmedicinetheartsandliteratureBythe1950sbehaviourismandpsychoanalytictheoryhadbecomethemostinfluentialschoolsofthoughtinpsychologyHumanismledbyAbrahamMaslowandCarlRogersisatheoreticalorientationthatemphasizestheuniquequalitiesofhumansespeciallytheirfreedomandtheirpotentialforpersonalgrowthoHumaniststakeanoptimisticviewofhumannatureReviewofKeyPointsSigmundFreudwasanAustrianphysicianwhoinventedpsychoanalysisHispsychoanalytictheoryemphasizedtheunconsciousdeterminantsofbehaviourandtheimportantofsexualityFreudsideaswerecontroversialandtheymetwithresistanceinacademicpsychologyHoweverasmorepsychologistsdevelopedaninterestinpersonalitymotivationandabnormalbehaviourpsychoanalyticconceptswereincorporatedintomainstreampsychologyTheinfluenceofbehaviourismwasboostedgreatlybyBFSkinnersresearchLikeWatsonbeforehimSkinnerassertedthatpsychologyshouldstudyonlyobservablebehaviourWorkingwithlaboratoryratsandpigeonsSkinnerdemonstratedthatorganismstendtorepeatresponsesthatleadtopositiveconsequencesandnottorepeatresponsesthatleadtoneutralornegativeconsequencesBasedonthebeliefthatallbehaviourisfullygovernedbyexternalstimuliSkinnerarguedinBeyondFreedomandDignitythatfreewillisanillusionHisideaswerecontroversialandoftenmisunderstoodFindingbehaviourismandpsychoanalysisunsatisfactoryadvocatesofnewtheoreticalorientationcalledhumanismbecameinfluentialinthe1950sJamesMarkBaldwinestablishedthefirstexperimentallaboratoryinCanadaattheUniversityofTorontoin1891RapidGrowthinCanadianpsychologyhasbeenevidentoverthelastcentury
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