Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Psychology (1,957)
PS101 (452)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 PS101.docx

4 Pages
121 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Carolyn Ensley
Semester
Fall

Description
PS101 Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology Week 2 The Scientific Approach to Behaviour 1. Measurement and description -Science’s commitment to observation requires that an investigator figure out a way to measure the phenomenon under study -The first goal of psychology is to develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely 2. Understanding and Prediction -A higher-level goal of science is understanding -Scientists believe that they understand events when they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the event -A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Variables are any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study -If we hypothesized that physiological arousal would affect emotions, the variables in our study would be physiological arousal and emotional state 3. Application and Control -Many scientists hope that the information they gather will be of some practical value in helping to solve every day problems Once people understand a phenomenon, they often can exert more control over it -Psychology attempts to apply research findings to practical problems in schools, businesses, factories, and mental hospitals -By integrating apparently unrelated facts and principles into a coherent whole, theories permit psychologist to make the leap from the description of behaviour to the understanding of behaviour -A scientific theory must be testable as the cornerstone of science is tihs commitment to putting ideas to an empirical test Steps in a Scientific Investigations -Scientific investigations are systematic Step 1: Formulate a Testable Hypothesis -Hypothesis are expressed as predictions -To be testable, scientific hypotheses must be formulated precisely, and the variables under study must be clearly defined -Researchers achieve these clear formulations by providing operational definitions of the relevant variables -An operational definition describes the actions or operations that will be used t measure or control a variable Step 2: Select the Research Method and Design the Study -Figure out how to put the hypothesis to an empirical test -The various methods – experiments, case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, and so forth have advantages and disadvantages PS101 Chapter 2 – The Research Enterprise in Psychology Week 2 -Participants, or subjects are the persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study Step 3: Collect the Data -Data collection techniques, are procedures for making empirical observations and measurements Step 4: Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions -The observations made in a study are usually converted into numbers, which constitute the raw data of the study -Researchers use sat to analyze their data and to decide whether their hypotheses have been supported Step 5: Report the Findings -Scientific progress can be achieved only if researchers share their findings with one another and with the general public -A journal is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry -Sometimes the process of critical evaluation discloses flaws in a study – if the flaws are serious enough, the results may be discounted or discarded Advantages of the Scientific Method -It has clarity and precision -It has relative intolerance of error – scientists are skeptical, they subject their ideas to empirical tests, they use a critical eye -The scientific approach does tend to yield more accurate and dependable information than casual analyses and armchair speculation do -Research methods consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies – they are general strategies for conducting studies Looking for Causes: Experimental Research -The experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result -The experime
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit