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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 PS102.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

PS102 Chapter 10 – Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7 Motivational Theories and Concepts -Motivation involves goal-directed behaviour Drive Theories -Drive theories apply the concept of homeostasis – a state of physiological equilibrium or stability – to behaviour -A drive is an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension -Drive theories have been very influential, and the drive concept continues to be widely used in modern psychology -Drive theories cannot explain all of motivation Incentive Theories -An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour -Ex. Ice cream if you get an A on your exam -Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions -Incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions -Expectancy-value models of motivation are incentive theories that take this reality into account -A particular course of action will depend on two factors: (1) expectancy about one’s chances of attaining the incentive, and (2) the value of the desired incentive Evolutionary Theories -Human motives and those of other species are the product of evolution, just an anatomical characteristics are -Evolutionary analyses of motivation are based on the premise that motives can best be understood in terms of the adaptive problems they solved for our hunter-gatherer ancestors The Range and Diversity of Human Motives -Motivational theorists of all persuasions agree on one point: Humans display an enormous diversity of motives -Given the range and diversity of human motives, we can examine only a handful in depth The Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger -There is an association between stomach contractions and the experience of hunger -Stomach contractions cause hunger Brain Regulation -The experience of hunger is controlled in the brain – in the hypothalamus -The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) were the brain’s on-off switches for the control of hunger -Today, scientists believe that two other areas of the hypothalamus – the arcuate nucleus and the paraventrical nucleus – play a larger role in the modulation of hunger PS102 Chapter 10 – Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7 Glucose and Digestive Regulation -Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important source of energy -Actions that decrease blood glucose level can increase hunger -After you have consumed food, cells in the stomach can send signals to the brain stem that inhibit further eating Hormonal Regulation -A variety of hormones circulating in the bloodstream also appear to contribute to the regulation of hunger -Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas – it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood -The secretion of insulin is what causes diabetes -After going without food for a while, the stomach secretes ghrelin which causes stomach contractions and promotes hunger -Leptin is produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into the bloodstream – when leptin levels are high, the propensity to feel hungry diminishes Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Food Availability and Related Cues -Palatability – The better food tastes, the more of it people consume -Quantity available – A powerful determinant of the amount eaten is the amount available -Variety – Humans and animals increase their consumption when a greater variety of foods is available -Presence of others – On average, individuals eat 44% more when they eat with other people as opposed to eating alone Learning Preferences and Habits -People from different cultures display very different patterns of food consumption -A preference for sweet tastes is present at birth -An unlearned preference for salt emerges around four months -Taste preferences are partly a function of learned associations formed through classical conditioning Stress and Eating -Stress leads to increased eating in a substantial portion of people -Some people eat while stressed because they expect the enjoyable treats to make them feel better Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity -Obesity is the condition of being overweight -Definitions of overweight and obese are based on the body mass index (BMI), which is an individual’s weight (in kg) divided by height (in metres) squared -A BMI over 30 is considered obese, while BMIs between 25-29.9 are considered overweight -Overweight people are more vulnerable than others to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, etc. Genetic Predisposition -Some people can eat constantly without gaining weight while others get chubby or eating less. These PS102 Chapter 10 – Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7 differences have a genetic basis Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise -The bottom line for overweight people is that their energy intake from food consumption chronically exceeds their energy expenditure from physical activities and resting metabolic processes – in other words, they eat too much in relation to their level of exercise -Inadequate exercise is a growing concern à Sensitivity to External Cues -Schachter advanced the “externality hypothesis” that obese people are extra sensitive to external cues that affect hunger and are relatively insensitive to physiological signals, whereas the eating of normal- weight individuals is regulated by internal signals -External cues are how tasty food appeared, how obvious the availability was, etc. -Many studies find views that are inconsistent with this theory The Concept of Set Point -Set-point theory proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable -Setting-point theory proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieves an equilibrium Dietary Restraint -Chronic dieters are restrained eaters – people who consciously work overtime to control their eating impulses and who feel guilty when they fail -The most common source of disinhibition is simply the perception that they have cheated on their diet – “I’ve already blown it”, they think to themselves after perhaps one high calorie appetizer -Restrained eaters tend to prepare for diets by overeating -Dietary restraint also contributes to the tendency to overeat just before beginning a diet -Anticipation of food deprivation seems to act as another disinhibitor Eating Disorders -Anorexia, bulimia Sexual Motivation and Behaviour The Human Sexual Response -The sexual response cycle is divided into four stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Excitement Phase -The level of physical arousal usual rise rapidly -Muscle tension, respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure increase quickly -Vasocongestion – engorgement of blood vessels – Ex. Erection , vaginal lubrication Plateau Phase -Produces a tightening of the vaginal entrance -Man secrete a bit of fluid at the tip of the penis -Erections vary, vaginal wetness varies PS102 Chapter 10 – Motivation & Emotion Weeks 6/7 Orgasm Phase -Orgasm occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak intensity. It discharges in a series of muscular contractions that pulsate through the pelvic area -There are gender differences here Resolution Phase -The physiological changes produced by sexual arousal subside -After orgasm, men experience a refractory period, a time following orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation -The length of the refractory period varies from a few minutes to a few hours and increases with age Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behaviour -The sex that makes the smaller investment will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger investment, and the sex with the larger investment will tend to be more discriminating in selecting its partners -Parental investment theory predicts that in comparison to women, men will show more interest in sexual activity, more desire for variety in sexual partners, and more willingness to engage in uncommitted sex -In contrast, females are through to be the more conservative, discriminating sex that is highly selective in choosing partners Gender Differences in Patterns of Sexual Activity -Males generally show a greater interest in sex than females do, and they think about sex more -Men also tend to overestimate women`s sexual interest in them -Men also are more motivated than women to pursue sex with a variety of partners -Clear gender disparities are also seen in regard to people’s willingness to engage in casual or uncommitted sex Gender Differences in Mate Preferences -Men would prefer a short term relationship, whereas women would prefer a long-term relationship -Social landscape has made long-term relationships the quo -Women pay more attention than men do to a potential partner’s willingness to invest in children The Controversial Issue of Pornography -Historically, legal authorities have expressed great concern that pornography might incite sex crimes -Most male sex offenders admit to a history of using pornographic materials, but so do most males who are not sex offenders -Although erotic materials don’t appear to incite overpowering sexual urges, they may alter attitudes in ways that eventually influence sexual behavio
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