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PS102 Lesson 1.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 6  Superstitions are often the result of obtaining a reward after engaging in some behaviour o operant conditioning : type of learning  Phobias: are irrational fears of specific objects or situations o often result of another learning process: Classical conditioning o can be treated but sometimes come to an abrupt but unplanned end on their own  Learning: is any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience o Shapes personal habits (nail-biting), personality trains (shyness), personal preferences (distaste for formal clothes), emotional responses (reactions to favourite songs) o The principles that explain learned responses in animals explain much of human learning  Conditioning: involves learning connection between events that occur in an organism’s environment CLASSICAL CONDITIONING  Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus  Pavlovian conditioning: Pavlov turned psychology from research focusing on subjective accounts of experience, introspection, to a more objective, rigorous, scientific approach o He showed how learning was under the influence of experience and that “associations could be built up in consciousness “  Conditioning must be evolutionarily adaptive, contributing to our reproductive fitness  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning  Unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning  Conditioned stimulus (CS): is a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response  Conditioned response (CR): is a learned action to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning  Psychic reflex = conditioned reflex  Classical conditioned responses are elicited (drawn forth) because most are relatively automatic or involuntary  A trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli  Key role in shaping emotional responses such as fears and phobias  Evaluative conditioning: refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli (involves the acquisition of likes and dislikes, or preferences, through classical conditioning) o Advertising campaigns try to take advantage evaluative conditioning  Antibodies: specialized proteins that are produced by the immune system to repel infectious invasion to the body  Immunosuppression: a decrease in the production of antibodies  Psychological processes influenced by classical conditioning: immune resistance, elicit allergic reactions, growth in drug tolerance, influence sexual arousal  Opponent responses which have been seen as the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants and alcohol are called compensatory CR’s because they partially compensate for some drug effects o They help maintain homeostasis (internal balance) in physiological processes o Adaptive in the short term, as they counterbalance some of the potential dangerous effects  Classical conditioning is often portrayed as a mechanical process that inevitably leads to a certain result. o most conditioned responses are reflexive and difficult to control  Acquisition: refers to the initial stage of learning something o Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity o Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space o Evidence suggests that stimuli that are novel, unusual, or especially intense have more potential to become CSs than routine stimuli, probably because they are more likely to stand out among other stimuli  Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o The consistent presentation of a conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned stimulus leads to extinction  Spontaneous recovery: is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non- exp
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