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PS102 (318)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 text book notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS102
Professor
Don Morgenson
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 – Behaviour in Social and cultural context - Social norms: rules that regulate social life - Social roles: given social position that is governed by set of norms - Culture: program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of people/ set of values, beliefs, and customs shared by most members - Milgram experiment – applying shock to another person in a room that gets a mistake. Less likely to occur if (concluded that personality is irrelevant to whether or not people obey) o The experimenter left the room o The victim was right in the room o The two experimenters issued conflicting demands o The person ordering them to continue was an ordinary man o The participant worked with peers who refused to go further - Prison study demonstrates how social situation affects behaviour causing some people to behave in a way that they normally wouldn’t - People obey to avoid negative consequences, to appease with the authority or to avoid trouble - Entrapment: individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action in order to justify their investment in it - Social cognition: social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs - Attribution theory: people are motivated to explain their own and other people’s behaviour by attributing causes of that behaviour o Situational attribution: the cause of an action as something in the environment o Dispositional attribution: the cause of action as something in the person - Fundamental attribution error: tendency to overestimate personality factors and underestimate influence of situation o People rely on different sources of error to judge their own behaviour than that of others o Self-serving biases: habits of thinking that make us feel good about ourselves - 2 cognitive biases in fundamental attribution error: o Bias to choose the most flattering and forgiving attribution of our own lapse: group- serving bias – tendency to view groups to which we belong favourably  Individualist cultures more likely to partake in group-serving biases o Bias to believe that the world is fair – just-world hypothesis: attributions are affected by the need to believe that the just always prevails  Usually results in blaming the victim - Attitude – belief about people, groups, ideas or activities (explicit or implicit) o Familiarity effect – tendency to hold positive attitudes toward familiar things o Validity effect: tendency to believe something is true because it has been repeated - Convincing usually involve coercive persuasion – suppress individual’s ability to reason, think and make choices for his/her interests
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