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Psychology (1,877)
PS102 (312)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Summary Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Chapter 9 Psychology Textbook Notes Psychological Testing - A psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour - They are measurement instruments - Responses represent a sample of your behaviour Principal Types of Tests Mental Ability Tests - intelligence tests measure general mental ability - they are intended to assess intellectual potential rather than previous learning or accumulated knowledge - aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities - they are also designed to measure potential more than knowledge, however they break mental ability into separate components - for example, differential aptitude tests assess verbal reasoning, numerical ability, abstract reasoning, perceptual speed and accuracy, mechanical reasoning, space relationships, spelling and language usage - achievement tests have a specific focus but they’re supposed to be measure previous learning instead of potential - they gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects Personality Tests - they measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values and attitudes Standardization and Norms - standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test - this includes the development of test norms - test norms provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to others on that test - they are needed because in psychological testing everything is relative - usually test norms allow you to convert your ``raw score`` on a test into a percentile - a percentile score indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained - the sample of people that the norms are based on is called a test’s standardization group - test norms are based on a large sample of people who were carefully selected to representative of the broader population Reliability - it refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques - a tests reliability can be estimated by comparing subjects` scores on two administrations of a test - the underlying assumption is that assertiveness is a fairly stable aspect of personality that won`t change in a matter of a few weeks - reliability estimates require the computation of correlation coefficients - a correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables Validity - it refers to the ability of a test measure what it was designed to measure - it is also used to refer to the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test - it can be estimated in several way
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