Textbook Notes (363,518)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (1,877)
PS102 (312)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 _ Human Memory.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 7 – Human Memory Encoding: involves forming a memory code Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores Encoding: Getting Information into Memory The Role of Attention -you generally need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events -attention is like a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness -but where is the filter located? -are stimuli screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed it -the cocktail party effect suggests it is after the brain has processed it -people can overhear their own name, even when ‘not listening’ to the conversation -studies have found evidence for both as well as for intermediate selection -the filter may be flexible rather than fixed -it is clear that people have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneously -large reduction in memory performance is seen -the human brain can only effectively handle one attention-consuming task at a time -when people multitask, they are really switching their attention back and forth amongst tasks, rather than processing them simultaneously Levels of Processing -differences in how people attend to info are the main factors influencing how much they remember Levels-of-Processing Theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes -semantic encoding is the deepest, and emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Level of Processing Type of encoding Shallow processing Structural encoding: emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus Intermediate processing Phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like Deep processing Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Enriching Encoding Elaboration Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding -semantic encoding can often be enhanced through elaboration -often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea Visual Imagery -imagery can also be used to enrich encoding -it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts Dual-Coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-Referent Encoding -making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant -enhances recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of information Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Sensory Memory Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second -allows the sensation to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over -this gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli Short-Term Memory Short-Term Memory: a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information -this is how you can maintain info in your short-term memory Durability of Storage -w/o rehearsal, info in short-term memory is lost in less than 20 seconds -loss of info from short-term memory is due to time-related decay of memory traces, as well as from interference from competing material Capacity of Storage -short-term memory is limited in the number of items it can hold -it can only hold 5-9 (7+/-2) Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit -you can increase the capacity of your STM by combining stimuli into chunks Short-Term Memory as ‘Working Memory’ -studies showed that STM is not limited to phonemic encoding as originally thought and that decay isn’t the only process responsible for the loss of info from STM -so the ‘working memory’ was proposed -consists of 4 components: -the phonological loop: represented all of STM in the earlier models -visuospatial sketchpad: temporarily holds visual images -central executive system: controls attention, switching focus and dividing attention -episodic buffer: a limited-capacity store that allows the components of working memory to integrate info and serves as a buffer between short-term and long-term memory Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory: an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time -storage may be permanent, and forgetting may only occur b/c people can’t retrieve the info Flashbulb Memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events -they are usually not accurate -so there is no evidence that memories are stored permanently Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate? -some people view STM as a tiny constantly changing portion of LTM that happens to be in a heightened state of activation -but right now, the separation of STM and LTM remains dominant How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? -our mental representations probably take a variety of forms, depending on the nature of the material that needs to be inputted in memory Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies -people spontaneously organize info into categories for storage in memory Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual Hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items -organizing info into a conceptual hierarchy can improve recall dramatically Schemas Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience w/ the object or event -suggests that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent w/ their schemas than things that aren’t -but also, people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schemas -relational schemas affect the way you process info about others and yourself, and influence your expectations and beliefs about yourself Semantic Networks Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts -not all info fits neatly into conceptual hierarchies or schemas -so it is organized into this less systematic framework -words that are closely linked to each other should be easier to recall than words that have longer links Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models -take their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle info -instead of how computers process -the human brain depends extensively on parallel distributed processing -simultaneous processing of the same info that is spread across networks of neurons Connectionist/PDP Models: assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks -a PDP system consists of a large network of interconnected nodes that operate like neurons -PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks -specific nodes represent specific concepts/pieces of knowledge Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory Using Cues to Aid Retrieval Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach -memories can often be jogged with retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memories Reinstating the Context of an Event -encoding specificity principle: your memory for info would be better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar -context cues often facilitate the retrieval of info -the effects of matching the person’s internal state of encoding at the retrieval phase is a special case of encoding specificity principle Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect -your memories may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur -based on schemas -the misinformation effect: occurs when participants’ recall of an event they wi
More Less

Related notes for PS102

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.