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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 _ Motivation and Emotion.docx

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Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 10Motivation and Emotion Motivational Theories and Concepts Motivation involves goaldirected behaviour motives are the needs wants interests and desires that propel people in certain directionsDrive Theories Homeostasis a state of physiological equilibrium or stabilityorganisms seek to maintain this Drive an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tensionthese unpleasant states of tension are viewed as disruptions of equilibrium when organisms experience a drive theyre motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction but drive theories cant explain all motivationhomeostasis appears irrelevant to some human motives such as a thirst for knowledge also motivation may exist without drive arousalex eat when you arent hungryIncentive Theories incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states Incentive an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavioursome of these incentives may reduce drives but others may not drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directionsthe source of motivation lies within the organism incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directionsthe source of motivation lies outside the organismso incentive theories dont operate according to homeostasis so they emphasize environmental factors and downplay biological bases of human motivation people cant always obtain the goals they desire expectancyvalue models of motivation are incentive theories that take this reality into account ones motivation to pursue a course of action will depend on two factors 1 Expectancy about ones chance of attaining the incentive 2 The value of the desired incentiveEvolutionary Theories human motives are the products of evolution natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success so motives can be explained in terms of their adaptive value motives can be best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved for our huntergatherer ancestors for example the need for dominance is thought to be greater in men than women bc it could facilitate males reproductive success in a few waysfemales may prefer mating with dominant malesdominant males may poach females from subordinate malesdominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access dominant males may acquire more material resources which may increase mating opportunities The Range and Diversity of Human Motives humans display an enormous diversity of motives most theories distinguish between biological motives that originate in bodily needs hunger and social motives that originate in social experiences achievement people all share the same biological motives but social motives vary depending on their experiences The Motivation of Hunger and EatingBiological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger there is an association between stomach contractions growling and the experience of hungerbut it is not causation only correlation people continue to experience hunger even after their stomachs have been removed medicallyif hunger can occur wo a stomach then stomach contractions cant be the cause of it so theories of hunger now focus on the role of the brain blood sugar level and hormonesBrain Regulation the lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus are elements in the neural circuitry that regulates hunger but are not the key elements and are not simple onoff centresLateral hypothalamus seemed as if the hunger was destroyedVentromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus VMH animal ate excessively and gained weight rapidly another area of the hypothalamus the paraventricular nucleus PVN plays a large role in the modulation of hunger theories of hunger now focus on the neural circuits that pass through areas of the hypothalamusthe circuits depend on many neurotransmitters rather than anatomical centres mainly neuropeptide Y serotonin GABA ghrelin orexins and the endogenous cannabinoids resemble marijuana elevated ghrelin is associated with increased food intakeGlucose and Digestive Regulation Glucose a simple sugar that is an important energy source for the bodyincreased glucose make you feel full decreased glucose makes you feel hungry the glucostatic theory proposes that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by glucostats Glucostats neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid but it was found that glucose levels dont change that much or that quickly the digestive system includes other mechanisms that influence hungercells in the stomach can send signals to the brain that inhibit further eating the vagus nerve carries info about the stretching of the stomach walls which indicates the stomach is full
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