Textbook Notes (363,666)
Canada (158,520)
Psychology (1,877)
PS102 (312)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Don Morgenson

Chapter 7: Human Memory Encoding: involves forming a memory code --- how it looks, how it sounds, what it means – a “code for a word”, etc Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time (in memory stores) Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores --- need to be able to get the information out of storage --- how people search for their memories and which strategies are the most effective * memories are rough reconstructions * ENCODING: Getting Information into Memory Next-in-Line Effect: if participants in a small group take turns talking, subsequent memory tests reveal that the subjects tend to not recall much of what was said before they took their turn. --- preoccupied rehersing than paying attention to what others are saying  Encoding must be “ACTIVE” Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.  a “filter” – people tend to filter out information that is not relevant to what they are doing. If this could not be done, we would react to every stimuli around us and not be able to focus on one task  we select which stimuli can pass through our attention filter  Research suggests that filtering takes place at all levels: before, during, and after the stimuli is acting upon us  Cocktail Party Phenomenon (hearing your name in another conversation) – late encoding  Tied up in a very complex task (high “cognitive load”) filtering may occur earlier  Multitasking – dividing attention between two different things, not processing the information simultaneously (brain is not capable of doing this)  “Effortful Processing” – picking up information because you are intentionally attempting to do so  “Automatic Processing” – information picked up without the intention of doing so. Occurs often in word frequency Levels of Processing  differences in how people encode words can effect the area of the brain that is activated and also how much they remember (eg. verbal vs. audio processing activate different brain centres)  some methods of encoding are more durable Levels-of-Processing Theory: deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes. 1) Structural Encoding – relatively shallow processing that emphasized the physical structure of the stimulus. --- what printing type, size, font, capitals, length of word 2) Phonemic Encoding – emphasizes what a word sounds like --- saying the word silently, etc 3) Semantic Encoding – emphasizes the meaning of verbal input --- thinking about what the objects and actions represent  retention of words/memories increased from structural – phonemic – semantic Enriching Encoding Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.  “associating” something with the encoded word by thinking of examples  examples thought of by oneself are the most effective  enriches SEMANTIC encoding Visual Imagery: creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered  a concrete objects (eg. clown) is easier to visualize than an abstract concept such as “truth”  high imagery words are easier to remember than low imagery words  “Dual Coding Theory”: memory is enhances by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant.  enhances recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of information STORAGE: Maintaining Information in Memory Atkinson/Shiffrin’s “Information Processing Theory”  3 stages, all a distinct type of memory 1) Sensory Memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.  preserves the image, and gives additional time to recognize the stimuli  rapidly decays from this memory bank 2) Short-Term Memory (STM): a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds. Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information. Can store things in STM indefinitely Maintenance Rehearsal – simply maintaining the information in consciousness (repeating a phone number) Elaborative Rehearsal – increasing the probability that you will retain this information in the future because you are focusing on the meaning of words in your head. Durability --- lost in less than 20 seconds (time related decay) --- interference from other stimuli and competing material Capacity  limited in the number of items that our STM can hold  seven unfamiliar items is about the maximum that can be held in STM  “Chunk”: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit --- grouping 3 numbers together as one unit can increase the capacity --- once these are chunked as meaningful group, they are stored in LTM and recalling them is like drawing from LTM to get information to STM “Working Memory” Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory (4 Components) Phonoligical Loop – recitation of a number (phone number) that you need to temporarily remember Visuospatial Sketchpad – temporarily hold and manipulate images (eg. rearranging a room, picturing what it would look like) Central Executive System – deployment of attention, switching attention and focus as needed Episodic Buffer – limited capacity store that allows components of working memory to integrate information, and acts as a buffer between working memory and LTM 3) Long-Term Memory: is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over length periods of time (indefinitely). Flashbulb Memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events.  where they were, what they were doing, how they felt, etc when something “big” happened  major distortions and factual impossibilities occur during these memories  neither as accurate or special as once believed Organization in LTM Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups.  bunches that belong to the same category  eg. 60 words read out that each fell into 2 categories, was able to remember like words together Conceptual Hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items.  when information is presented in like categories, it may be broken up further  improves recall Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.  people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schema (eg. what you would expect to see in a professor’s office)  people are also likely to remember things that violate their schema based perceptions (if they are completely different, they may attract a lot of attention)  people have schemas about different people, events, types of people (relational schemas) represent regularities in schemas Semantic Networks: consists of nodes representing c
More Less

Related notes for PS102

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.