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Chapter 1

PSYC102 Textbok Notes chapters 1,2.docx

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Kathy Foxall

PSYC102 Textbook Notes Chapters 7, 10, 8 (In-Order) Chapter 7: Learning & Conditioning Research on learning has been heavily influenced by Behaviourism accounts for behaviour in terms of observable acts and events, without referring to mental entities (mind, will) and Conditioning involves associations between environmental stimuli and responses (classical and operant) Learning is relatively a permanent change in behaviour (or behavioural potential) due to experience Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimuli’s (US) The classical term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning or event or thing that elicits a response automatically. Dog = food in the dogs mouth Unconditioned Response (UR) The classical-conditioning term for a reflexive response. Dog = salivating *Learning occurs when a neautral stimulis (one that does not yet produce a particular response, such as salivation) is regularely paired with an unconditioned stimulis…. Ex… dog bowl (neutral)…food(unconditioned stim )….dog salivating (uncondt Res.) Classical respone = bowl , neutral turns into CR Classical Conditioning, also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. Higher order conditioning a neutral stimuli (dog bowl or light) can become a conditioned stimulis by being paired with an already established conditioned stimuli. This may explain why words trigger emotional felelings.When words are paired with objects or other words that already elicit some emotional respone, they to may come to elicit that response. In other words it could contribute to the formation of prejiduces Stimuli’s Generalization triggers that happen from similar words or objects “he hath been bitten by a snake, is scared of a rope” Stimuli’s discrimination is the mirror image of generalization, in which different responses are made to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimuli’s in some way John. B Watson founded behaviourism in North America Counterconditioning in which a conditioned stimulis is paired with some other stimulis that elicits a response incompatible with the unwanted response. Rabbits + milk and cookies Rabbit = CS Cookies = US Systematic desensitization treating phobia for adults Behaviour becomes more likely or less likely depending on its consequences Operant Conditioning The process by which a response becomes more likely or less so, depending on its consequences B.F Skinner – Radical Behaviourism , To understand behaviour we must look at the external causes of an action and the actions consequences. 1.Reinforcement strengthens the response or makes it more likely to recur 2.Punishment weakens the response or makes it less likely to recur *A sooner a consequence follows a response, the greater its affect: you are likely to respond more reliably Primary Reinforcer A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiolo
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