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Chapter 10

chapter 10 review.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

 Reconstructing the Past  The Manufacture of Memory o Source Misattribution: the inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from info you learned about the event elsewhere  The Conditions of Confabulation o Confabulation: confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened You've thought, heard, or told others about the imagined event many times The image of the event contains lots of details that make it feel real 3. The event is easy to imagine  Memory and the Power of Suggestion  The Eyewitness on Trial o Eyewitnesses are especially likely to make mistaken ID's when suspect's ethnicity differs from their own o Leading questions affect the memories of the individual under questioning o  Children's Testimony o Power of suggestion can affect anyone, especially children o Leading questions: using hypotheticals with children (this suggests a scenario to children; this simple suggestion very quickly becomes "reality" to them) o  In Pursuit of Memory  Explicit Memory: conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of info  Recall: ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material  Recognition: ability to identify previously encountered material  Implicit Memory: Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by effect of previous experience or previously encountered info on current thoughts or actions   Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Model: model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network and all operating in parallel; also called connectionist model  Three-Box Model of Memory  Sensory Register: memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory info  STM: in three-box model of memory, limited-capacity memory system involved in retention of info for brief periods; also used to hold info retrieved from LTM for temporary use  Chunk: meaningful unit of info; may be composed of smaller units   Working Memory: in many memory models, cognitively complex form of STM that involves active mental processes that control retrieval of info from LTM and interpret that info appropriately for a given task  Long-Term Memory (LTM): in three-box model of memory, memory system involved in long- term storage of info  Contents of LTM: o Procedural memories: memories for the performance of actions or skills ("knowing how") o Declarative memories: memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that"); they include semantic and episodic memories o Semantic memories: memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions o Episodic memories: memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred   Serial-Position Effect: tendency for recall of first and last items on list to surpass recall of items in middle of list  The Biology of Memory  Changes in Neurons and Synapses o LTM involves lasting structural changes to brain o Long-Term Potentiation: long-lasting increase in strength of synaptic responsiveness, thought to be biological mechanism of long-term memory  Locating Memories
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