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Canada (162,363)
Psychology (1,978)
PS102 (318)
Chapter 5


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Carolyn Ensley

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CHAPTER 5: Variations in Consciousness Consciousness- the awareness of internal and external stimuli; personal awareness Stream of consciousness- the idea that the contents of your consciousness are continually changing Sigmund Freud: believed in the unconscious, but examined what was beneath this stream… - conscious and unconscious processes are different levels of awareness - conscious is not an all-or-none phenomenon Electroencephalograph (EEG)- a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp - amplitude: height - frequency: cycles per second EEG patterns associated with states of consciousness… - beta (β): normal waking thought; alert problem solving - alpha (α): deep relaxation; blank mind; meditation - theta (θ): light sleep - delta (Δ): deep sleep Biological Rhythms- periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning Circadian Rhythms- the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species - influences the cycle of sleep and wakefulness - when exposed to light, receptors send a signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC) located in the hypothalamus light  retina  SNC  pineal gland (secretes melatonin) - Melatonin- a hormone that adjusts biological clocks - Circadian rhythms appear to be regulated by multiple internal clocks, with the central pacemaker located in the SNC Electromyograph (EMG) – records muscular activity and tension Electrooculograph (EOG) – records eye movement During sleep, people cycle through a series of FIVE STAGES: Stage 1: Transitional stage of light sleep (theta waves) - hypnotic jerks- brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep Stage 2: Sleep spindles appear: brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves Stages 3 and 4: Slow wave sleep (SWS)- high amplitude, low frequency (delta waves prominent) Stage 5: Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) – deep sleep of high frequency (beta waves) REM sleep- a relatively deep stage of sleep, marked by rapid eye movements, high frequency, low- amplitude and vivid dreaming Non-REM sleep (NREM) – consists of sleep stages 1 to 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity * People usually repeat the sleep cycle about 4 times. Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) - consists of the afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal - sleep depends on the interplay of many neural centres and neurotransmitters Sleep Deprivation… - complete deprivation- when people go completely without sleep for a period of days - partial deprivation- when people make do with substantially less sleep than normal, over a period of time - selective deprivation- when a subject is deprived of their REM sleep o little impact on daily performance o rebound effect- spend extra time in the REM sleep periods for 1-3 nights to make up for their deprivation Insomnia- refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep. It occurs in three basic patterns… 1. difficulty in falling asleep 2. difficulty remaining asleep 3. persistent early-morning awakening Narcolepsy- a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods Sleep Apnea- involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep Nightmares- are anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep - typically recalls a vivid dream, and has difficulty going back to sleep Night Terrors (sleep terrors)- are abrupt awakenings from the NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic - victims usually let out a cry and get up, but don’t have difficulty falling back asleep Somnambulism (sleepwalking)- occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep Dreams- are mental experiences during REM sleep that have a story-like quality, include vivid visual imagery, are often bizarre and are regarded as perceptually real by the dreamer  This definition is questioned… - peoples dream are affected by what is going on in their lives - lucid dreams- people may realize they are still dreaming while still in the dream state Theories… 1. Sigmund Freud: “wish fulfillment” 2. Rosalind Cartwright: “cog
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