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Chapter 7


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Carolyn Ensley

CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory- memory for general information Episodic Memory- memory for personal events 3 Key Processes involved in memory… 1. Encoding- forming a memory code 2. Storage- involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3. Retrieval- involves recovering information from memory ENCODING: getting information into memory Forgetting: can result in a failure to form a memory code Next-in-line effect- when participants are next in line to speak, they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being said Attention- involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events - often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness - where the filter is located… o early  during sensory input o late  after the brain has processed the meaning o intermediate selection  location may be flexible rather then fixed - divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasks Effortless Processing- you are picking up info because you are intentionally attempting to do so Automatic Processing- info picked up without your intending to do so Levels of Processing: Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart Shallow processing: - Structural encoding- emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus - Example: Is the word written in capital letters? Intermediate processing: - Phonemic encoding- emphasizes what a word sounds like - Example: Does the word rhyme with weight? Deep processing: - Semantic encoding- emphasizes the meaning of verbal input - Example: Would the word fit into the sentence “He met a … on the street?” Levels-of-Processing Theory: deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes - Depth  time required for processing Elaboration- is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding - can be a way to enhance semantic encoding - consists of linking examples that illustrate an idea Imagery- the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered - it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts - imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code Dual-coding theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall (Paivio) Self-referent encoding- involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant - depressed people have a more negative content as part of their self-prototype STORAGE: maintaining information in memory Information-processing theories: a metaphor; subdivided into 3 stores…(Atkinson and Shiffrin) …2 temporary storage buffers for incoming info (sensory and short-term) …1 long-term store The 3 memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain, but rather as functionally distinct types of memory. 1. Sensory Memory- preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second - the brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli 2. Short-Term Memory (STM)- is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds - rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information  a way to maintain STM - chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit - people often extract info from their long-term memory to evaluate info they are working with in the STM 3. Long-Term Memory (LTM)- is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time - Flashbulb memories: are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events (ex. 9- 11) o Although strong and detailed, can be inaccurate Clustering- the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual Hierarchy- is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schema- an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular ogject or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event - people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not - rational schemas- represent regularities in your interpersonal experience; affect the way you process into about others and yourself and influence your expectations and beliefs about yourself Semantic Network- consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts (pg 281; Fig. 7.14) - the length of each pathway represents the degree of association between two concepts Spreading Activation- when people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words Connectionist or Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)- models assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks - PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks Connectionist networks  piece of knowledge is represented by a pattern of activation across an entire network vs. Semantic networks  specific nodes represent specific concepts or pieces of knowledge RETRIEVAL: getting information out of memory Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach Retrieval Cues- stimuli that help gain access to memories Encoding Specificity Principle- memory for information would be better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar Context Cues- trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which it occurred Memories- are sketchy reconstructions of the past that may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur - distortions occur because subjects reconstructed the tale to fit their established schemas Misinformation Effect: - subjects view an event - subject is exposed to information about this event - subjects recall of the original event is tested to see if the post-event misinformation altered their memory of the original event Source Monitoring- the process of making attributions about the origins of memories - memories are not tagg
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