Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (1,952)
PS102 (318)
Chapter 9


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Carolyn Ensley

CHAPTER 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Psychological Test- is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour - used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality - accurate population sample is a limitation of these tests 2 Types of Psychological Tests… 1. Mental Ability Tests: include three principal categories… - Intelligence Tests- measure general mental ability; intended to assess intellectual potential - Attitude Tests- assess specific types of mental abilities; measure potential more than knowledge - Achievement Tests- gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects; measure previous learning instead of potential 2. Personality Tests: measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, values, attitudes) - traits that can be assessed, and have right and wrong answers Standardization- refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test …includes the development of test norms. - Test norms- provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test - tell you how you score, relative to other people - Percentile score- indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained raw score  % percentile score Reliability- refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques)  Consistency + accuracy  Test-retest reliability: subjects to take the test on two occasions; changes = inconsistency Correlation coefficient: is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables - positive = similar scores - the magnitude of the correlation gives us a precise indication of the test’s consistency  the closer the number comes to + 1.00 the more reliable  the higher, the more consistent Validity- refers to the ability of a test to measure that it was designed to measure; the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test Content Validity- refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover Criterion-related validity- is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test Construct validity- the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct - examines the correlation between the test and various measures related to the trait in question - the overall pattern of correlations provide convincing evidence of a test’s construct validity History of Psychological Tests… Francis Galton: - studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared consistently in some families over generations - intelligence is governed by heredity - “nature-versus-nurture”  refer to the heredity-environment issue - invented the concepts of correlation and percentile scores Alfred Binet: - was asked to devise a test to identify mentally subnormal children (France education) - Mental age- indicated that he or she displayed the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age  expressed a child’s score in terms of mental age Terman: - Expanded on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, to develop a new scoring system based on the… Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = Mental age x 100 Chronological age - originally, you can see that IQ scores were actual equations - ratio  mental age : chronological age Wechsler: - set out to improve on the measurement of intelligence in adults - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: characterized by at least 2 major innovations… 1. Made his scales less dependent on subjects’ verbal ability 2. Discarded the IQ in favour of a new scoring scheme based on the normal distribution The Basic Principles underlying intelligence testing: - variations depend on whether the test is intended for children or adults (or both) and whether its for individuals or groups - Normal Distribution- a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population o When a trait is normally distributed, most cases fall near the centre of the distribution (average score) - Deviation IQ- locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measure (what raw scores are translated to) o Places you at a specific point on the normal distribution of intelligence - Mean of distribution = 100 - Standard Deviation (SD) = 15  score 115 … person is exactly one SD (15 points) above the mean - Modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence - IQ tests blend a measure of potential and knowledge (intelligence tests are just potential) - IQ tests assess: verbal, practical and social intelligence - Ingredients of intelligence are culture-specific Levels of Intelligence: - Low end = IQ scores roughly + 2 SD below the mean - High end (gifted) = IQ scores 2 or 3 SD above the mean - Mental Retardation- refers to sub-average general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18. There are 4 levels… o Mild (51-70) o Severe (35 – 20) o Moderate (36 – 50) o Profound (below 20) o Down Syndrome- a condition marked by distinctive physical characteristics that is associated with mild to sever retardation - minimum IQ scores for gifted programs usually falls somewhere around 130 - gifted children are usually stereotyped as nerds, bookworms, etc - Joseph Renzulli: theorized that high intelligence alone does not usually foster genuine greatness (intelligence + creativity + motivation) - Drudge Theory- eminence primarily or entirely depends on dogged determination; endless tedious practic
More Less

Related notes for PS102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.