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Chapter 7-9

Chapter 7 - 9 PS102

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Joanne Lee

Chapter 7: Memory 02/20/2014 Processes involving memory: Encoding (getting information in) – involves forming a memory code (like entering data using a keyboard) Storage (maintaining it) – involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time (like saving data in a file on your laptop) Retrieval (getting it out) – involves recovering info from memory stores (like calling up a file then displaying it on screen) Encoding Role ofAttention - involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. - Selective attention is critical to everyday functioning Stimulus ▯ Sensory Detection – Recognition of Meaning – Response Selection ▯ Response Levels of Processing LOP Theory – proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes ▯ Structural encoding – emphasizes physical structure of stimulus | Shallow ▯ Phonemic encoding – what the word sounds like | Intermediate ▯ Semantic encoding – meaning of verbal input | Deep Elaboration – is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding Storage Sensory Memory ▯ Preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second – Allows sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over ENV IRO SENS  ST LT MEM N. MEM MEM Short Term Memory ▯ is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds ___How do you maintain info?___ Rehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the info ___Increasing ST Mem__ Chunking –AChunk – a group of familiar stimuli as a single unit Working memory ▯ Limited cap. Storage system that temporarily maintains and stores info by providing an interface b/w perception, memory and action Model of Working Memory 4 Components: ▯ Phonological loop/Articulatory loop :At work when you use recitation to temporarily remember a phone number ▯ Visual-spatial sketchpad : Permits people to hold and manipulate visual images ▯ Central executive : Controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed. ▯ Episodic Buffer :Atemporary, limited-capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate info and that serves as an interface b/w working memory and long- term memory WM capacity – refers to one’s ability to hold and manipulate information in conscious attention Long-Term memory (LTM) – is an unlimited cap. Store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time - Indefinite - holds our memories for knowledge gained, skills learned, personal experiences etc. Flashbulb Memories – are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events Clustering – the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual Hierarchy – is a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schema – is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event Semantic Network – consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts Retrieval: Getting Info from Memory Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon – The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that’s it’s out of reach ▯ Happens about once a week, and occurrence increases as you age ▯ Constitutes a failure in retrieval Retrieval Cues are stimuli that help gain access to memories Context cues aid retrieval – recall an event by putting yourself back into the context in which it occurred. (forgot scissors, retraces steps to remember where misplaced them) Misinformation effect – Occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event info 1. Subject views an event 2. Exposure to info about event, some of which is misleading 3. Their recall of the original event is tested to see if the post-event misinformation altered their memory of the original event ex. Car accident Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring Reality Monitoring – refers to process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (One’s perception of actual events) or internal sources (One’s thoughts and imaginations) ▯ Something actually happened vs. they only thought about it happening When memories are rich in sensory info (recalling) or contextual info (seeing yourself doing action) or when memories can be retrieved with little effort, one is more likely to infer that the event really happened Source monitoring – involves making attributions about origins of memories (thinking you made up a quote but you actually read it somewhere online) SM error – occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Destination memory – involves recalling to whom one has told what Forgetting When Memory Lapses AForgetting Curve – Graphs retention and forgetting over time Measures of Forgetting Retention – refers to the proportions of material retained. Retention interval: length of time b/w the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting Recall – requires subjects to reproduce info on their own without any cues (Like a ShortAnswer Test_ Recognition – Requires subjects to select previously learned info from an array of options (Like multiple choice test) Relearning – requires subject to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before Why We Forget Ineffective Encoding ▯ Info may not have been inserted in your memory in the first place ▯ Pseudoforgetting – forgetting something you never learned Decay Decay Theory – forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time Interference Interference Theory – people forget info because of competition from other material Retroactive Interference – When new info impairs the retention of previously learned info ▯ Occurs b/w the original learning and the retest on that learning Proactive Interference – When previously learned info interferes with the retention of new info Retrieval Failure Encoding Specificity Principle – States that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transfer-Appropriate Processing – occurs when the initial processing of info is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention Motivated Forgetting Repression – refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious The Physiology of Memory TheAnatomy Of Memory RetrogradeAmnesia – involves loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia (Can’t remember where he lives after car accident) AnterogradeAmnesia – involves the loss of memories for events that occurs after the onset amnesia (Can’t remember doctors that treated him after car accident) Consolidation – is a hypothetical process
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