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Chapter6LearningLearning is a any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience Conditioning involves learning connections between events that occur in an organisms environmentClassical ConditioningIs a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulusSometimes called Pavlovian conditioningThe unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningTypes of UCSCSForward shortdelayForward traceSimultaneousBackwardThe unconditioned response is an unlearned reaction to an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningThe conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned responseThe conditioned response is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioningEvaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuliRobert Ader and Nicholas cohen have show that classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression a decrease in the production of antibodiesBasic processes to classical conditioningAcquisition the initial stage of learning somethingExtinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendencyProcess in which CS is presented in absence of UCSCauses CR to weaken and eventually disappearGradualSystematic desensitizationNon GradualFlooding real eventsImplosion imagine eventsSpontaneous recover is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of no exposure to the conditioned stimulusRenewal effect if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response 1will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took placeSpontaneous RecoveryAfter a rest period and without any new learning trials the reappearance of a previously extinguished CRUsually weaker than initial CR extinguishes more rapidlyStimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulusStimulus discrimination occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Higherorder conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulusChain of events which has 2 CS stimuliExpands influence of classical conditioning on behaviour Ex If you made the dog that already has a behaviour attached to something continue the attachment with something else play the tuning fork at the same time as you show the black square later the dog will have just an attachment with the black squareOperant ConditioningIs a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequencesAnother name for it is instrumental learning introduced by Edward Thorndike in 1913Law of effect if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that responseAn operant chamber or skinner box is a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlledEmit means to send forthReinforcement contingencies are the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcersThe cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of timeBasic processes in operant conditioningAcquisition and shaping which consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired responseExtinction Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminatedStimulus control Discriminative stimuli are cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences reinforcement or nonreinforcement of a responseDifferences between classical and operant conditioningClassicalBehaviour changes due to association of two stimuli CSUCS presented prior to the response CROperantBehaviour changes as a result of consequences that follow itLearning through consequencesThorndikes law of effectResponse followed by a satisfying consequence becomes more likely to occurResponse followed by an unsatisfying consequence becomes less likely to occurSkinnerian instrumentalAssumes that behaviours are voluntary under our control
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