Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Psychology (1,877)
PS102 (312)
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Chapter 1-3

Psychology Notes Chapters 1-3, 14, 15

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Wilfrid Laurier University
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Psychology Notes Sept 1409 Chapter 1 The Evolution of PsychologyWilhelm Wundtfounder of Psychology st G Stanley Hallestablished 1psychology lab in US in 188324 new labs in North America 18831893James Mark Baldwin and James Gibson Hume established the American Psychological Association 2 thoughts regarding science of psychologyStructuralism Edward Titchener o Analyze consciousness into basic elements o Introspectioncareful systematic observations of ones own conscious experiencesFunctionalism William James o Function or purpose of consciousness o Led to investigation of mental testing developmental patterns and sex differencesApplied Psychology and Behaviourismdescendants of functionalismearly 1900s o Next thought to influences development of psychologyPositive school of thoughtowe do have some free will o Function of body makes you who you areJohn B Watson 18781958Founder of BehaviourismPsychology scientific study of behaviourovert or observable response or activitiesStimulus any detectable input from environmentNature vs Nurture debateJohn WatsonBehaviourist school of thought emphasized the environmentFocus on stimulusresponse relationshipsStimulusresponse psychologySigmund Freud 18561939 Austria o Psychoanalytic school of thoughtEmphasis on unconscious processes influencing behaviourUnconscious thoughts memories and desires that below the surface of conscious awareness but extent great influence on behaviourFreuds IdeasBehaviour influenced by unconsciousnessUnconscious conflict related to sexuality plays central role in behaviourSignificant influence on the field of psychologyEgo reality principle most conscious o Secondary process thinkingSuperego moral imperativesID pleasure principle o Primary process thinking BF Skinner 19041990 US BehaviouristEnvironmental factors determine behaviourResponses that lead to positive outcomes are repeatedResponses that lead to positive outcomes are not repeatedIf you cant studyobserve it its not worth looking at itPublished Beyond Freedom and DignityOpposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and BehaviourismChanges both were dehumanizingDiverse opposition groups got together to form a loose allianceHumanism o led by Abraham Maslow 19081970 and Carl Rogers 19021987 o emphasis on unique qualities of humans freedom and personal growthCognition mental process involved in acquiring knowledge1950s and 1960Piaget Chomsky and SimonApplication of scientific methods to studying internal mental eventsThe new dominant perspectivePhysiological PsychologyBiological Perspective behaviour explained in terms of physiological processesJames Old electrical stimulation of brain evokes emotional responses in animalsRoger Sperry left and right brain specializationDonald Hebb cell assemblies describe neural networksContemporary PsychologyEthnocentrism viewing ones own group as superior and as standard for judgingHistorically middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males1980s interest in cultural influences on behaviourEvolutionary Psychologycentral premise natural selection occurs fro behavioural as well as characteristicsBuss DalyWilson Cosmides Tooby80s and 90s o Studied natural selection of mating preferences jealous aggression sexual behaviour language decision making personality and developmentPositive PsychologyUses theory and research to understand positive aspects of human existencePositive subjective experiencesIndividual traitsPositive institutions and communities
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