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PS260 (69)
Chapter 5

PS260 Chap 5 Notes.docx

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Eileen Wood

Psychology Chapter 5 Notes: Body Rhythms and Mental States Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience - Consciousness: awareness of oneself and the environment - Biological Rhythms: a periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; may or may not have psychological implications - Entrainment: synchronization of biological rhythms within rather than by external cues - Circadian Rhythm: biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours (sleep-wake cycle) o Reflect the adaptation of organisms to the many changes associated with rotation of Earth on its axis (temperature, light, etc.) o Body’s Clock:  Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: an area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms. • Regulates fluctuating levels of hormones and neurotransmitters; in return they provide feedback that affect its functioning • Melatonin: hormone secreted by the pineal gland, involved in the regulation of daily biological rhythms (high when sleeping, low when awake) o When the Clock is out of Sync:  Internal Desynchronization: state in which biological rhythms are not in phase with one another • (e.g: airplane flights across time zones) - Moods and Long-Term Rhythms: o Does the Season Affect Moods?  Seasonal Affective Disorder: some people become depressed during particular seasons o Does the Menstrual Cycle Affect Moods?  Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): the symptoms associated with the days preceding menstruation • Physical symptoms do occur; but emotional symptoms are very rare Rhythms of Sleep - Realms of Sleep: o Rapid eye Movement (REM) Sleep: sleep periods characterized by eye movement, loss of muscle tone, and dreaming o Non-REM: recurs every 90 minutes or so o When you first climb into your bed, your brain emits bursts of alpha waves o Hypnotic suggestions have been used effectively for many medical and psychological purposes - Theories of Hypnosis: o Dissociation Theories:  Dissociation: a split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of others – Ernest Hilgard  Most of the mind is subject to hypnotic suggestion, one part is a hidden observer watching but not participating • Hand in cold water, press key if cold and painful – pressed key but said after they didn’t have pain o Sociocognitive Approach:  Effects of hypnosis result from an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject  People somewhat play along and over exaggerate stories to get answers that they want to hear (e.g saying they lived a previo
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