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Learning.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS261
Professor
Don Morgenson
Semester
Winter

Description
Learning – Thursday January 9, 2014 • What is Learning? o Process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in  behavior or capabilities (knowing how) • How Do We Learn? o Initially guided by 2 perspectives  Behaviorism  Ethology • Behaviorism o Focused on how organisms learn o Examined processes by which experience influences behavior o Discovered laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms o Treated organism as tabula rasa o Explained learning solely in terms of directly observable events o Avoided unobservable ‘mental states’ (Wasn’t cared for as much) • Behaviorism and Learning o Respondent  Aka classical or Pavlovian o Operant  Aka Skinnerian or Instrumental • Respondent Conditioning o Based on internal responses to naturally occurring stimuli (No training  required) o Some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us o When we pair things that don’t have a value, or have a different value with  these naturally occurring pairings, the “value free” or “differently valued”  items will come to take on the new meaning • Language or Respondent conditioning  o Four terms  UCS = unconditioned stimulus  UCR = unconditioned response  CS = conditioned stimulus  CR = conditioned response • UCS and UCR o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  Stimulus that elicits a reflexive or innate, unconditioned response  (UCR) without prior learning o Unconditioned response (UCR)  Reflexive innate response elicited by the USC without prior  learning • CS and CR o Conditioned stimulus (CS)  Stimulus, that, through association with the UCS, comes to elicit a  conditioned response similar to the original UCR o Conditioned response (CR)  Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus • Getting a Response o Natural responses are unconditioned responses evoked in response to an  unconditioned stimulus o UCS­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­▯ CR o Lemon­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ▯Pucker o Food­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ▯Salivating/Drooling • Adding Neutral Stimulus o Responses?? • Question o Can I make something that is neutral, or relatively meaningless produce a  conditioned response in the organism? o Refer to diagram in textbook • Pavlov o Studied salivary responses in dogs  Is a natural response – no learning involved o Noted dogs salivated at sounds (footsteps; tone)  How did the ‘association’ with the tone come about?  • Types of CS­UCS pairings o Forward short­delay  CS (tone) still present when food (UCS) presented  Optimal learning o Forward trace  CS appears and then goes off  Best if delay is no more than 2­3 seconds o Simultaneous  Presented at same time  Learning is slower o Backward  Presented afterward  Little learning • Factors that enhance Acquisition o Multiple CS­UCS pairings o Intense, aversive UCS can produce one­trial learning o Forward (short­delay) pairing o Time interval between onset of CS and onset of UCS is short • Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery o Extinction  Process in which CS is presented in absence of UCS  Causes CR to weaken and eventually disappear o Spontaneous Recovery  After a rest period, and without any new learning trials, the  reappearance of a previously extinguished CR  Usually weaker than initial CR, extinguishes more rapidly  Mapping out spontaneous recovery refer to diagram • Generalization & Discrimination o Generalization  Stimuli similar to initial CS elicit a CR  Aids in survival o Discrimination  CR occurs to one stimulus but not to another • Higher Order Conditioning o Chain of events which has 2 CS stimuli o Expands influence of classical condition on behavior  • Variables Affecting Respondent Conditioning o Response Dominance  Refers to the relative strengths of responses elicited by the CS and  UCS before they are paired  Best results when UCS is stronger • Extinction o Gradual  Systematic desensitization o Non­Gradual  Flooding – real events  Implosion – imagine events • Classical/Respondent/Pavlovian Conditioning influences many things o Attraction to other people o Positive, negative attitudes  Both of above used in advertising o Condit
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