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PS261 (109)
Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS261
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Semester
Winter

Description
Learning Chapter 1IntroductionoLearningBiological process that facilitates adaptation to ones environmentoIntegrity of life depends on successfully accomplishing a number of biological functions such as respiration digestion and resisting diseaseReproduction significantly improved by learningoLearning involves acquisition of new behaviour but also the decrease or loss of a reactionWithholding responses is as important as making themoTwo types of learningProcedural learningDoes not require awarenessDeclarativeepisodic learningMore accessible to conscious reportMany aspects of human behaviour occur without awarenessPeople are typically inaccurate with reporting their own behaviourHistorical AntecedentsoRoots from DescartesoBefore DescartesHuman behaviour determined by free willNot considered to be controlled by external stimuli or mechanistic natural lawsOur actions were a result of our intentoRecognized that many people do are automatic reactions to external stimuliDeveloped dualistic view of human behaviourdualismoDualismTwo classes of human behaviourVoluntaryoDoes not have to be triggered by external stimuli and occurs because of persons conscious intent to act in that particular mannerInvoluntary oConsists of automatic reactions to external stimuli and mediated by reflexesoReflexive behaviouroStimuli in environment are detected by sense organsRelayed to brain through nervesFrom brain impetus for action sent through nerves to muscles that create involuntary responseSensory input is reflected in response outputInvoluntaryreflexiveoFree will and voluntary behavior to be uniquely human attributesOnly humans thought to have a mindsouloMindbody dualismStimulated two intellectual traditionsMentalismoConcerned with contents and workings of mindReflexologyoConcerned with mechanisms of reflexive behaviouroHistorical developments in the study of the mindNativismAssumption that people are born with innate ideas about certain things1
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