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PS261 (109)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 – Instrumental Conditioning.docx

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Anneke Olthof

Chapter 7Instrumental Conditioning Motivational MechanismsThe motivation of instrumental behaviour has been considered from two radically different perspectiveso1 ThordikeAssociative Structure of Instrumental Conditioningrelies heavily on the concept of associations and hence is compatible with the theoretical tradition of Pavlovian Conditioningmolecular perspective examines instrumental learning in isolated behaviour preparationso2 Behavioural Regulationconsiders the motivation of instrumental behaviour from more of a molar perspectiveconsiders longterm goals and how organisms manage to achieve these goals within the context of all their behavioural optionsmore functional perspective The Associative Structure of Instrumental Conditioningthere are three events to consider in an analysis of instrumental learningo1 Stimulus So2 Instrumental response Ro3 Response Outcomeor reinforcer Othreeterm contingency os actually triggers the RO associationThe SR Association and the Law Of EffectoAssociation between the contextual stimuli S and the instrumental response R the SR associationoAccording to the Law of Effectinstrumental conditioning involves the establishment of an SR association between the instrumental response R and the contextual stimuli S that are present when the response is reinforced Assumes that the only role of the reinforcer is to strengthen the SR associationReinforcer itself is not a party or participant in this association oProblemsVery counterintuitiveEvidence for representations of OoHabits arise when people repeatedly use a particular contexts to pursue their goals However once acquired habits are performed without mediation of a goal Constitute about 45 of human behaviourAutomatic reactions to the stimulus context in which a goal was previously attained Autopilot thingsRESEARCH HollandHabits learned in ratsoRats trained for 2 5 or 20 sessions to lever press for foodoThen food was devaluedoFound extensive training weakened reinforcer devaluation effects oThis is evidence for sr associations1
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