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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 – Extinction of Conditioned Behaviour.docx

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Anneke Olthof

Chapter 9Extinction of Conditioned BehaviourInformationExampleResearchExtinction involves omitting the US or reinforceExtinction is being studied at the levelin classical conditioning extinction of brain structures neurotransmitter involves repeated presentations of the systems or fear conditioning CS by itselfparadigms in instrumental conditioning extinction involves no longer presenting the reinforcer as a consequence of the instrumental response both types of procedures conditioned responding declines appears to be the opposite of acquisition it is not the same thing that occurs because of forgetting Extinction is an active process produced by the unexpected absence of the US or the reinforcer WHEREAS Forgetting is a decline in responding that may occur simply because of the passage of time and does not requireExposure therapy is basically an nonreinforced encounters with extinction procedure in which the CS or the instrumental participants are exposed to cues that response elicit fear in the absence of the aversiveExposure to the actual fearful US Social phobia fear of flying stimulus is the best way to conduct claustrophobia and other exposure therapy but is not often pathological fears and phobias practicalare treated with some form ofHaving clients imagine being in the exposure therapy fearful situation can be helpful It is also helped with treatingMore vivid and realistic exposure is drug addiction with the aim of now possible with the use of virtual extinguishing cues associated reality techniqueswith drug taking behavior Effects of Extinction ProceduresInformationExampleResearchBehavioural Effects of Extinction1 Target response decreases when the response no longer results inDid not succeed in opening Neuringer KornellOlufs 2001 reinforcement the door to your apartmentlab ratswith your keyYou wouldntapparatus and procedure were set up give up at first but would keep to facilitate the measurement of 1tryingHowever if it still response variabilitydidnt work you wouldresponse levers and response key eventually quit trying rats had to make three responses in a 2 It increases response variability at row to obtain food pellet firstIf the key no longer opens the LLL RLK LLK door you will give up one group was reinforced for varying However before you give up response sequences Group Var They you are likely to jiggle the key got food only if their response in various ways in an effort to sequence was different then the one make it work from earlier trialssecond group also require to make three responses but there was no requirement Group Yoke Results reinforcement produced the expected difference between the two groups in terms of the variability of their response sequencesGroup var showed more variabilityGroup yoke responded somewhat faster Extinction produced a decline in respondingincrease in response variability that occurred during extinction did not come at the expense of the subjects repeating response sequences that they had performed during reinforcement response sequences that were highly likely to occur during reinforcement phase continued to occur during extinction Arzin HutchinsonHake 1966two animals are placed in the same skinner box one is reinforced for pecking a response key the other is restrained in the cornerkey pecking animal ignores the other animal so long as it is being reinforced by food when reinforcement ceases the previously rewarded animal is likely to Extinction procedures also produce attack its innocent partner this also strong emotional effects occurs if there is a stuffed animal 1 The emotional reaction induced by instead of a real animalwithdrawal of expected reinforcer is called frustrationfrustative nonreward energizes 2
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