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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

19 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS261
Professor
Anneke Olthof

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Description
Chapter11ComparativeCognitionIMemoryMechanismsComparative The investigation of behaviours that cant be Cognitioncharacterized in terms of simple associations or reflexesAnimals have internal representations of their environment Focus is all on cognitive abilities that could have been explained by classical or instrumental conditioningThe animal is performing an internal representationClassical conditioning involves the learning of an association between CS and a US As a result Interested in how the representations are formed and of this association presentation of the CS what aspects of the experiences are coded and how activates a representation mental image of the the experiences are used to guide behaviour US and conditioned responding reflects the status of this representationCognition means knowledge or thinkingUsed to refer thought processes Can lead to actions that cannot be explained on the basis of the external stimuli an individual experiences at the timeOn your way to work you may start thinking Cognitive ethology claim that animals are capable of that you did not lock the door to your apartment conscious thought and intentionality Conscious when you left home Your returning cannot be intent is the likely source of such clever and flexible explained by the external stimuli you behaviour encountered on your way to work You come across those stimuli every day without going Comparative cognition refers to theoretical constructs back to check the door Rather your behaviour and models used to explain aspects of behaviour that is attributed to the thought that you might have cannot be readily characterized in terms of simple Sleft your apartment unlocked R or reflex mechanisms Cognitive mechanisms involve an internal representation or mental record of something and rules for manipulating that mental record Other Animal Memory Paradigms Comparison of Learning and Memory Experiments 1First thing that happens in both LearningMemory is that participants are exposed to certain kinds of stimuli acquisition The information that was acquired is then retained for some time retention interval At the end of the retention interval the participants are tested for their memory of the original experience which requires retrieval or reactivation of the information encountered during acquisition Ie Riding a bicycle To be a skilled bicyclist you first have to be trained to balance pedal and steer the bike acquisition You then have to remember those training experiences retention And when you get on a bicycle again you have to reactivate the knowledge of bike riding retrieval MemoryAbility to respond to information that Dog goes in the backyard and picks up a bone dog was experienced at an earlier timeremembers where the bone was The example on the right illustrates the Any time any animals behaviour is determined by past existence of memory in animals is events we can conclude that some type of memory is identified by the fact that their current involved behaviour is based on some aspect of their earlier experiencesLearningAn enduring change in how an Learning is not possible without memory you cannot organism responds to a situation have one without the other because of prior experience with that type of situationHow does the stuff get in there acquisition stageDifference in In the emphasis what are we Experimental differencesLearning and manipulating here Acquisition exposure to certain stimulior Memory informationRetention period of time that information is retained for Retrieval Reactivation of the information from acquisition 2
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