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Chapter 1

sensation - chapter 1 .doc

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Phillip Servos

Chapter 1 Introduction to Perception Pages 3-20 The perceptual process - end result of complex behind the scenes processes - perception of the world around you is only a small part of what is happening as you perceive - perceptual process - sequence of processes that work together to determine our experience of and reaction to stimuli in the environment - four categories of processes: - 1. stimulus - 2. electricity - 3. experience and action - 4. knowledge - stimulus - what is in the environment and what we pay attention to - exists out there in the environment and within the person’s body - electricity - electrical signals that are created by receptors and transmitted to the brain - experience and action - goal (perceive, recognize and react to stimuli) - knowledge - knowledge we bring to the perceptual situation Environmental stimuli and attended stimuli - environmental - e.g. trees, path, rustling noises, etc - attended - e.g. attention captured by distinctive looking tree off to the right The stimulus on the receptors - e.g. staring at moth - transformed into image (representation) Electricity - everything we perceive is based on electrical signals in our nervous systems - created in receptors, which transform energy from the environment into electrical signals in the nervous system -- transduction Transduction - transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy - e.g. when you touch the withdrawal button on ATM, pressure exerted by finger is transduced into electrical energy, which causes the device to push out your money Transmission - signals activate other neurons, which activate more neurons - signals travel out of eye and are transmitted to brian - crucial* because if signals don’t reach the brain, there is no perception Processing - neural processing - interactions between neurons - signal is relayed through series of neurons to the brain, which transforms this signal into a perception of the moth (for example) Experience and action - backstage activity of transduction, transmission and processing is transformed into things we are aware of: - perceiving, recognizing and acting on objects in the environment Perception - conscious sensory experience - when electrical signals that represented the moth are transformed by brain into experience of seeing the moth - recognition and action are important outcomes of the perceptual process Recognition - ability to place an object in a category, i.e. moth, that gives it meaning - visual form agnosia - inability to recognize objects - that was caused by a brain tumor - e.g. Dr. P - musician had trouble recognizing students Action - motor activities, e.g. moving head or eyes and locomoting through the environment - David Milner and Melvyn Goodale - propose early in the evolution of animals the major goal of visual processing was to help the animal control navigation, catch prey, avoid obstacles and detect predators - essential for survival Knowledge - any info that the perceiver brings to a situation - can affect many steps in the perceptual process - rat-man demonstration - shows how recently acquired knowledge can influence perception (page 10) - bottom-up processing (data-based processing) - based on incoming data - essential for perception because perceptual process usually begins with stimulation of the receptors - top-down processing (knowledge-based processing) - baed on knowledge - very often involved in perception How to approach the study of perception - 2 approaches to perception - psychophysical and physiological - psychophysical - gustav fechner - psychophysics - use of quantitative methods to me
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