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sensory + perception Ch 1-4

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Elizabeth Olds

SensoryPerceptionChapter 1 perceptual processStimuluswhat is out there in the environment what we actually pay attention to and what stimulates our receptors two environmental aspects environmental stimulusis all of the things in our environment that we can potentially perceiveattended stimuluschanges from moment to moment center of attentionElectricitythe electrical signals that are created by the receptors and transmitted to the brain receptors which transform energy from the environmentTransductionthe transformation of one form of energy into another form of energyTransmissionsignls travel from neuron to neuron to the brainneural processinginteractions between neuronsExperience and Action refers to our goalto perceive recognize and react to the stimuli Perceptionconscious sensory experience when electrcal signalsseeinghearing etcRecognitionour ability to place an object in a category gives it meaning ex visualform agnosiaan inability to recognize objectsActionmotor activitiesKnowledgeknowledge we bring to the perceptual situation This box is located abovethe other three boxes because it can have its effect at many different points in the processAny information that the perceiver brings to a situationcan be things learned years agoperception can be influenced by knowledgeexratman demonstrationBottomup processing also called databased processingis processing that is based on incoming data begins with stimulation of the receptors patterns symbols firstTopdown processing also called knowledgebased processingprocessing that is based on knowledge names the whole ideathen deconstructing it into smaller and smaller partsstarting place for topdown processingcognitive influences on perceptionhow knowledge and other factors such as memories and expectations affect each of the three relationshipsperception has been studied using two approaches1 psychophysical approach to perceptionrelationship between the physical properties of stimuli and the perceptual responses to these stimuli introduced by Fechner who coined the termpsychophysicsthe use of quantitative methods to measure relationships between stimuli physics and perception psycho any measurement of the relationship between stimuli and perceptionex measuring PP the stimulusperception relationship is it the same or different2 physiological approach to perceptioninvolves measuring the relationship between stimuli and physiological processes and between physiological processes and perceptionstudied by measuring electrical responses in the nervous systemalso involves studying anatomy or chemical processesPH1measuring the stimulusphysiology relationshipex how outside stimuli result in electrical activity generated in neuros in cortexPH2physiologyperception relationship experson describes stimuli n you see what part of brain is activeboth explain mechansms responsable for perceptionMeasuring Perception five perceptual responses to a stimulus1 Description Indicating characteristics of a stimulusphenomenological method When a researcher asks a person to describe what he or she is perceiving or to indicate when a particular perception occurs first step describes what we perceive2 RecognitionPlacing a stimulus in a specific categoryWhen we categorize a stimulus by naming it A stimulus is presented and the observer indicates what it isused in testing patients with brain damage3 DetectionBecoming aware of a barely detectable aspect of a stimulusquantitativeabsolute thresholdis the smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary to detect a stimulusdemonstrated that mental activity could be measured quantitativelythree basic methods for determining the absolute threshold1 method of limitspresents stimuli in either ascending order intensity is increased or descending order intensity is decreased change from yes to noindicated by the dashed line is the crossover point2 method of adjustment the observer or the experimenter adjusts the stimulus intensity continuously until the observer can just barely detect the stimulusobserver does not say yes or no observer simply adjusts the intensity until he or she can just barely hear the tone3 method of constant stimulithe experimenter presents five to nine stimuli with different intensities in random order
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