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Chapter 7

PS263 Chapter 7.docx

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Bruce Mc Kay

PS263: Biopsychology – Chapter 7 Module 7.1: Audition Sound and the Ear:  Physics and the psychology of sound: o Amplitude is the intensity of a sound wave o Loudness is perception of the intensity of a sound o The Frequency is the number of cycles per second, measured in Hz o Pitch is the related aspect of perception o People hear sounds from about 15 Hz to almost 20000 Hz  Structure of the ear: o Pinna: the outer ear structure of flesh and cartilage that sticks out from each side of the head  Helps to locate the source of a sound o Tympanic membrane/ eardrum: middle ear  Vibrates at the same frequency as the sound waves that strike it  Connects 3 tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the oval window o Oval window: a membrane of the inner ear o Cochlea: small snail-shaped structure in the inner ear o Hair cells: auditory receptors Pitch perception:  Frequency and place: o Place theory: concept that pitch perception depends on which part of the inner ear has cells with the greatest activity level o Frequency theory: concept that the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, causing auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency  How we perceive sounds: o At low frequency ie., 100 Hz the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with the sound waves – axons in auditory nerve send one action potential per sound wave o Perceive middle frequency sounds like 100-4000 Hz; no single axon fires an action potential for each sound wave, but different axons fire for different waves, and so a volley (group) of axons fires for each wave. o Perceive high frequency sounds like above 4000 Hz; the sound causes maximum vibration for the hair cells at one location along the basilar membrane o Absolute pitch depends on special experiences: Absolute pitch occurs almost entirely among people who had early musical training and is also more common among people who speak tonal languages, which require greater attention to pitch. The Auditory Cortex:  Primary auditory cortex: area in the superior temporal cortex in which cells respond best to tones of a particular frequency Hearing Loss:  Most hearing impaired people respond slightly to loud noises  2 kinds of hearing impairments: o Conductive/middle ear deafness: hearing loss that occurs if the bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea o Nerve, inner ear deafness: results from damage to the cochlea, hair cells or auditory nerve  Nerve deafness produces tinnitus: frequent or constant ringing in ears Sound localization:  Humans localize low frequencies by phase differences and high frequencies by loudness differences Module 7.2: The Mechanical Senses  Mechanical senses respond to pressure, bending, or other distortions of a receptor; include touch, pain and other body sensations, and vestibular sensations Vestibular sensation:  Ex. When you move your head you can still keep your eyes on the page  Semicircular: structures located in the vestibular organ, oriented in three planes and lined with hair cells; sensitive to the directional tilt of the head Somatosensation:  Somatosensory system: sensory network that monito
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