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Chapter 4

Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 4

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Camie Condon

Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 3  Human Sexual Arousal (passion) o Before “Human Sexual Response” was published  Women were nonorgasmic and rarely, if ever, had sexual feelings o Sexual Behavour in Human Male (Kinsey et al) and Sexual Behaviour in the Human female (Kinsey et al)  Showed that women enjoy sex and both sexes enjoy a wide variety of sexual practices, like to have sex in different positions and locations  At the time – people regarded idea of variation in sexual response as perverse o Biological Component  Heterosexual paradigm  Person becomes interested in the opposite sex because of visual, auditory, olfactory or even cognitive cues  Masters and Johnson focused research on tactile phase of sexual behaviour o Argued sex is rewarding because it provides a pleasurable sensory experience  Remarkable similarity between female and male sexual response  Female sexual response  Corrected misconceptions o Women do not derive any pleasurable sensation from sex and that they do not experience orgasms  Women do indeed experience orgasms  Four stages of female sexual response o Excitement phase o Plateau phase o Orgasmic phase o Resolution phase  Involves physiological changes that occur o Outside genital area o In clitoris o In vagina  Tactile stimulation in the genital area is the most effective  Clitoris’ only function is pleasure  Male sexual response  Penis has other functions outside of pleasure o Essential for reproduction  Plays important role in stimulating female  Penile erection is first sign of sexual arousal o Continue stimulation produces ejaculation o Learned component  Found nude members of opposite sex can elicit sexual response  Does not necessarily have to be visual stimulation, can be verbal  Ability to fantasize may be important because subjects can become sexually aroused through fantasy  People who are prone to fantasize or have experienced sex find it easier to produce sexual fantasies  Long been held that women are not aroused by explicit erotic material where as men are  Compared to men, women are more aroused by romantic themes  Sexual scripts  Mental schemata of how interpersonal sexual episode should be enacted o Analogous a movie script Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 3  In any sexual encounter, each individual is guided by personal script  Until adolescence o Sexual scripts involve gender-appropriate behaviours and how to treat the opposite sex in nonsexual encounters  Onset of adolescence o Males:  During masturbation, coordinate or integrate sexual feelings and activities with gender roles  As scripts become more sophisticated, each phase becomes more clearly differentiated so appropriate behaviours and communication patterns coincide more closely to each phase of sexual response  Gagnon o When adolescents begin to date, scripts shift from fantasy based masturbatory script to more interpersonal and interdependent sexual script o As dating continues, partners learn more skills, and points out that sexual performance is awkward, clumsy and anxiety ridden, but with practice, that changes and improves  Interaction of biological and learned factors  Because of importance of sexual scripts, sexual pleasure is result of interaction between biological and learned factors  Sexual arousal comes to depend on sensory awareness of the sexual partner o Characteristics of other person become sources of sexual arousal  Sexual arousal is in eye of the beholder o People are aroused by what they perceive will happen  Reward value of sex  Fourteen behaviours have been identified as part of this script o Includes, kissing, caressing, manual stimulation, oral stimulation and penetration o Sexes experience varying degrees of arousal to different behaviours  Male arousal builds linearly, culminating with greatest arousal at penetration o Female arousal is not linear, and highly variable  Females find stimulation by males the most arousing  Learning theorists suggest differences in sexual arousal are linked to individual’s focus o Females tend to focus on being stimulated by male rather than penetration o Cognitive component  Liberal and conservative attitudes toward sex  From 1950-1980 o Premarital sexual experiences became less taboo o Decline of sexual double standard  Couples having sex earlier and more frequently and become more open in their attitudes about sex  Beliefs about the sex drive  Believed that male sex drive is stronger than females  Double standard shows that promiscuity is more acceptable in males than females  Meaning of sexual experience  Females tend to connect sex with feelings of affection and closeness  Males tend to perceive sex as achievement, adventure, demonstration of control and power or purely physical release o Women may also feel these things Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 3  Most men prefer that love and sex go together and value love far ahead of sex in importance  Attraction, Passion, Love and reproduction o Males and females approach sexual behaviour from different perspectives o Biological Component  Pleasure we experience is simply an evolutionary mechanism that emerged to motivate us to engage in sexual behaviour on a repeated basis  One of the basic problems is how best to adapt to raising offspring that could survive and ensures our genes would survive  In many species  Parenting left solely to mother, humans involved emergence of sharing in the raising of offspring  Evolution and biology of love  Love is an evolved mechanism to ensure humans establish a long-term relationship  Research shows that love has been linked to dopamine and norepinephrine, both implicated in euphoria  Phenylethylanine o Makes you flash the silly smile at strangers that you think are attractive o Does not last forever, may last 2-3 years, that’s why divorce rates peak at around 4 years  Initial attraction stage gives way to attachment stage mediated by endorphins  Endorphins also have huge impact on immune system  Oxytocin thought to promote cuddling and to enhance orgasms o Produces feelings of relaxed satisfaction and attachment  Long-term female mating strategies  Researchers have suggested that women need a mate who o Can obtain resources to invest in raising the offspring o Willing to invest those resources o Has capacity to physically protect both her and her offspring o Has/can develop good parenting skills o Mate who is compatible o Is healthy  Women prefer men who are o Financially stable o With higher social status o Older o Ambitious  Symmetry has been found to be a good health cue  Long-term male mating strategies  Best strategy for males is to mate with as many females as possible  Females exert greater control over deal of control than previously thought  Females tend to look for commitment  Advantages to forming long term relationships o Gain greater sexual access, increasing likelihood of offspring o Increases likelihood that offspring will survive  Two parents give distinct advantage in improving survival rate  Males mainly focus on fertility or reproductive value o Young women tend to be more appealing because they have longer period of fertility  Attractiveness is a sign of health Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 3  Sex differences in the desire for sexual variety  Despite advantages of long-term dating, considerable evidence that short-term mating also happens  Short term strategy shows that men have greater desire for variety as they have a greater interest in engaging in sex with multiple partners  Because females can only produce one offspring a year, advantageous to select males for their genetics o Learned component  Research shows that we frequently fall in love with somebody other than our ideal  Falling in love depends on factors other than those we think we are looking for  Chance meeting appears to be among the conditions most conducive to falling in love  Unexpected encounters make us more attuned to the possibility of falling in love  If we are set or prepared to fall in love, we will  We fall in love through our actions and can stay in love through our actions  Arousal and attraction  Numerous studies have shown that arousal increases attraction to attractive opposite-sex target and decreases attraction to an unattractive opposite sex target  Response facilitation theory o Increases attractiveness of an attractive person as well as increases aversiveness of the unattractive person o Increasing arousal of an individual makes you more attractive to them  Taking the person out to do high arousal activities  Intimacy  Feelings of closeness, connectedness and being bonded o Psychological or social aspects rather than physical  Commitment is a decision (cognitive activity)  Intimacy is a skill (must be learned)  Self-disclosure establishes intimacy o Willingness to self-disclose personal information  Willingness to self-disclose to a sensation-seeking personality type o Sensation-seeking personalities  Need high degree of novelty and complexity in their lives and willing to take risks to meet this need  Tend to have more sexual partners o Also uses self-disclosure to signal their intent to the other person early in the relationship  Sexual self-schemas  Derived from experiences and manifest themselves in sexual cognition o Play a role in romantic attachment  Positive self-schema has two components o Involves having a positive view of our ability to become attached o Involves view of whether or not others are available or supportive o Cognitive component  Staying in love depends on making decision that you love someone and that you are willing to invest time and energy necessary to stay in the relationship  Commitment involves realizing that love involves satisfying the needs of two distinct individuals  Accepting there are going to be differences and problems, and for love to endure, these problems must be resolved to a mutual satisfaction  Not just a wish, but also the willingness to invest time and energy Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 3  Sternberg’s interaction model  Suggest that love involved three primary components o Passion, intimacy and commitment  Passion alone = infatuated love
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