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Chapter 2

Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 2

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Camie Condon

Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 2  Behaviour not caused solely by biological, learned or cognitive process but by interaction of all three  Biological component o Brain is largely responsible for our survival, happiness, health and ability to attain success and do everything o Origins of human brain design  Assumptions  Human community resulted from years of evolution o Physical evolution happens quickly and then stabilizes  Also have an adapted mind o One that is capable of learning and problem solving  Bodies and mind adapted for world in which we no longer live  Adaptations of brain can be used for purposes other than those for which they were designed  Interesting and important feature of evolutionary psychology is that humans are social animals  Sociobiology theory (selfish-gene theory)  Motivated to propagate our own genes into future generations to preserve ourselves o Example of temperament  Temperament  How we react to the world and how we self-regulate ourselves  Born into world with it already predetermined  Best described as three broad factors  Having a disposition toward high activity, preference for intense stimulation and proclivity for taking risks o At ease in social situations  Having disposition toward negativity o Fearful and/or sad and to be angry when frustrated  Low negativity  More curious, open to new experiences, happy and not readily frustrated  Ability to regulate attention and behaviour o Effortful control o If you can focus attention or behaviour, you’re more likely to overcome obstacles and experience pleasure factors  Researchers have shown that personalities can be broadly described by 3-5 underlying factors  Extraversion  Neuroticism  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Openness to experience  These factors are enough to explain wide range of individual differences regardless of cultural background  Naturally have a temperaments that make us inclined to  Avoid risks (some risks must be taken)  Be on guard (calculated risks)  Be in control of everything we do (not always in perfect control and open to new ideas) o Monozygotic and dizygotic twins  Using twins is the best way to determine whether a certain behaviour is caused by genes or nature Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 2  Huge differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twins ,genetics only have so much influence o Brain design and motivation  Brain structure and brain circuits  Brain contains number of structures linked by nerve pathways  Brain structures generally work in conjunction with one another  Each emotion has a distinct brain circuit o Activation does not cause behaviour but creates disposition to action  How acts will be influenced by both learned and cognitive variables o Some important brain circuits in motivation  Extended adaptation  Brain systems evolved as a specific adaptation o They have extended capacity and can be used for other things  Approach and avoidant motivation: behavioural activation system and the behavioural inhibition system  Gray o Two distinct circuits  Behavioural activation system (BAS)  Activated by conditioned signals of rewards and nonpnishment  Behavioural inhibition system (BIS)  Activated by conditioned signals of punishment and nonreward and novel stimuli o Activation of BIS promotes suppression of inappropriate behaviour o Two systems can vary independently in strength  One can be more active than the other o BAS > BIS  Sensation seeker o BIS > BAS  More inclined to reduce punishment/nonrewards  More anxious  Negative aspects > positive aspects o Disposition to experience pleasure and punishment  Reward pathway (also called the dopaminergic pathway)  Brain has electrical stimulation areas – reward centres o Reward pathway or dopaminergic pathway  Amphetamines activate this system, produces positive feelings  Basic principles of psychology is that humans are motivated to perform actions to produce positive feelings  Not the only system responsible for feelings of pleasure o Limbic system  Set of interconnected structures deep within brain that regulates emotions such as fear, love and anger is believed to be involved not only in activation of behaviour but in its reinforcement  Prefrontal cortex  Right side activated more than left when presented with stimuli that provokes withdrawal-related negative affect  Left active more when participants are presented stimuli that evoke approach-related positive affect  Depending on activation of the right or left side, reactions are different Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 2  Amygdala  Known that amygdala is activated by aversive stimuli  Large differences in how amygdala responds to negative pictures o When more active, more feelings of negative affect  Different baseline activity levels of the amygdala  Concept of plasticity  Early environment manipulations produce a number of biological changes in offspring that shape central circuitry of emotions  Shown that there are short-term changes in brain activation as a result of voluntary emotion regulation  Suggested that systematic training of the mind to increase positive affect produce such changes  Self-regulation of behaviour and the prefrontal cortex  Ability to achieve goals and focus attention on specific activity or activities over a period of time is suggested to come from a developed prefrontal cortex  Self regulation is an acquired behaviour that comes from learning the “rules” and coming up with a plan in situations  Role of neurotransmitters in information processing  Information is transmitted via nerve pathways o Not continuous and separated by synapses  Different receptors for different neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters and moods o Many neurotransmitters are involved with mood regulation  Norepinephrine – euphoria  GABA – regulates anxiety and information processing  Serotonin – low level linked to negative mood, high level linked to euphoria  Dopamine – low levels linked to negative mood, high levels to positive mood  Epinephrine – high levels linked to brain activation o Moods can help to understand and monitor how neurotransmitters influence mood  Important in stress management  Learned component o Attention and learning  Attention consists of three interrelated processes  Need to focus sensory receptors on source of information (attending to a stimulus)  When organisms focus attention, they selectively process parts of the incoming information (selective attention)  Due to limitations, often cannot deal with effectively vast amounts of information or complex topics (chunking/grouping)  Rarely remember random, unrelated pieces of information  Associative and cognitive learning  Learning – associative learning  S-R learning – connection or association of stimuli and responses  Cognitive learning o Process of organizing information to construct meaning  We initially learn through associative learning, and then cognitive learning to learn more complex things  Is attention under voluntary control? Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 2  Only partially under voluntary control  If we cannot process the information because we lack ability to comprehend it, attention likely to move on o If information has been already processed, then attention will shift  Managing attention is key to effective learning  Difference between deliberate and incidental learning o Deliberate (intentional) o Incidental (passive)  Learning tends to be incidental more often  Amount of information that can be processed is limited, attention can shift back and forth to learn two things simultaneously o Not always aware when attention is shifting  Learning depends on attention processes o To understand what people learn, need to understand what controls and limits attention o Classical Conditioning  Pavlov discovered this when he discovered dogs could be taught to salivate at sound of a bell  Unconditioned stimulus (US) naturally leads to unconditioned response (UR)  Found that when paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS), the bell, a conditioned response (CR) will be elicited  UR is stronger than CR  If CS is repeatedly presented in absence of the US, then extinction will happen  Conditioning and adaptive behaviour  Classical conditioning crucial for adaptive behaviour o Depends on relatively innocuous signals to warn of threats to survival  Imperative to identify signals  Context and conditioning  Associations formed not just between primary events, but also between events and situation in which conditioning takes place  One of the most interesting findings about drug addiction is that drug effects are to a large degree, under situation control o Urge to use drugs triggered by environment  When drug user enters familiar environment, will take more drugs to reach the same high o Instrumental learning  Organisms learn certain environmental events such as receiving rewards or punishments, depend on their own behaviour  Behaviour may continue at a high rate, even if reward is removed  Nonrewarded responses will eventually diminish o Offer partial reinforcement of behaviour  Secondary rewards and instrumental learning  If reward is to be effective, must be applied as soon as possible after desired behaviour o Primary r
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