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Chapter 1-4

Chapter 1 -4 Notes. Midterm 1 Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Camie Condon

Motivation and Emotion – Midterm 1 (Chapter 1-4) CHAPTER 1 – THEMES IN THE STUDY OF MOTIVATION  The ability to delay short-term gratification is an important element of achievement and success. • E.g., Children who can delay immediate gratification are better academically and can deal with stress when they reach adolescence  To delay gratification is related to personalimpulsivity. People who are high in impulsivity engage in activities that have an immediate short-term appeal. Difficulty in delaying short-term gratification. Some people are attracted to novelty – anything new or different captures their attention. Both elements are inherited. Therefore, the ability to delay gratification involves more than just self-control.  Our environment we were raised in also shapes our ability to delay gratification.  However, people can learn to self-regulate, which involves altering patterns of thinking. It starts with self-monitoring – helps us to correct faulty thinking. Hot and Cool Theory of Delay of Gratification  2 underlying systems control behaviour.  The hot emotional system is designed for quick emotional responding to triggers. Tells us to go when we think of doing something we like, such as hanging out with friends. System is based on feelings and is largely under stimulus control. Thus, this system is readily activated should we encounter a stimulus promises us a reward.  The cool system is designed for complex representation and thought. It is devoid of emotion. This system develops later in life and needs to be strengthened and practiced.  Key aspect is to develop our cool system. Using the cool system more may cause it to become the main system and dominate behaviour. However, we often fail to exert willpower because we yield to temptation. How to deal with these tempatations?  When the stimulus is hidden from view it is easier to delay gratification, but when it is present it is harder. Distance ourselves from temptation, mentally and physically.  The hot takes charge if there is faulty thinking (failure to develop contingency plans). Identify all triggers and have a plan to deal with those situations. We need to learn how to create plans that will help us overcome temptationthis is called willpower.  Stress tends to shift control to the hot system. When we are stressed we tend to give into temptations. Don’t try to implement a behaviour such as quitting smoking unless stress is low. What Causes Behaviour?  For every behaviour there is a cause. Motivational theorists want to know what instigates behaviour. What causes action?  Multiple causes of actiobiological, cognitive, learning, etc. Approach and Avoidant Causes  Approach behaviour people do things because of something they want, desire, or need. Specific goal object. Ex. I eat a sandwich because I am hungry. Want and desire does not always immediately give rise to a specific goal object- ex. Independence is a variety of things.  Avoidant behaviour people do things to avoid something. Can also be a specific goal object. Ex. Fear of snakes. Anxiety in contrast may not immediately elicit a specific goal object. May not be able to specify the source of anxiety. Tend to be difficult to ignore. Afraid of snakes distance themselves from goal objects. Involve threats to our survival. Biological perspectivegoals are to 1. Survive and 2. reproduce  Some people are born as more anxious meanwhile Sensation seekers spend more time in approach behaviours. There is a biological component to whether a person is more motivated to approach (seek rewards) while others are more motivated to avoid (avoid punishment).  It has been suggested that people have different temperaments that fall along a continuum ranging from an approach temperament to having an avoidant temperament. Temperament we approach life with a particular orientation that can affect everything we do and say. Basic Themes of Contemporary Motivation Theories Behaviour Represents an Attempt to Adapt  Behaviour represents an attempt to adapt to the environment  Evolutionary psychology roots in Darwinian theory. Why certain behaviours evolved in the first place. The Importance of Determining What Arouses and Energizes Behaviour  Humans interact with the environment in 2 ways: 1) master the environment 2) survival. Conflict do we put survival needs first or put mastery needs first? Survival needs will take precedence, especially when I am threatened.  Sensory input into the brain travels along 2 routes: 1)takes message to the part of the brain that deals with threats. 2) takes message to part of brain that deals with rational analysis. Route 1 gets message first. Sometimes the survival route is wrong and the rational will analyze the situation to shut down the emotional system. Understanding What Governs the Direction of Behaviour  Need theory suggests that needs are what give direction to behaviour. When need is aroused we are more or less automatically pushed in the right direction. But past learning and how we think about things also play a role.  Goal theory suggets that goals give rise to actions. Goals create tension and we move toward goals to reduce that tension. Both direction and energy for behaviour are the result of the goals. Contains biology, our learning, and our tactions. Understanding Persistence  Persistance more than anything else distinguishes motivation from other branches of psychology.  Persistance is one of the main predictors of success.  Traditional reward theory we are inclined to repeat behaviours that make us feel good (positive reinforcement) and discontinue behaviours that make us feel bad (negative reinforcement). Events that make us feel bad will be avoided.  “No pain, no gain” frustration cues that arise when we reach a goal actually become conditioned to the approach response. Negative feelings come to act as a signal that reward is forthcoming.  Cognitive explanation persistence grows out of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic theory – reward comes from mastering or developing competence that sustains the goal-directed behaviour. Progressing toward the goal provides motivation for the behaviour.  Optomistic and hope learned to dismiss or manage adversity and failure. Ego involvement and extrinsic reward as well contribute to why people persist even when they show no progress. Understanding the Role of Emotions  Affect theories people approach things to experience positive affect and avoid things to guard against experiencing a negative affect.  Approach and avoidant behaviourfeelings are important for determining behaviour.  Feelings are real and not imagined as they are chemical reactions in body/brain  Feelings linked to survival?  Negative feelings undermine goal-directed behaviour. Positive feesustain goal- directed behaviour Accounting for Individual Differences  Evolutionary psychologists are interested only in general principles of behaviour, where as motivation theorists are interested in why individuals behave the way they do.  Evolution ex. sexual behaviour is biological. Reward and pleasure. Males use one strategy females use another. Males are more promiscuous. Explains gender differences, but not individuals differences. A female could still be promiscuous.  Motivation theorists say both learned and cognitive factors can modify the way people behave as well as biological. We form relationships, not just sex, which gives us happiness. Self-Regulation of Behaviour  People who succeed at things learned self-regulation – learned to set attainable goals, manage negative emotions, selective attention.  Key aspect is that they enagage in planning. Form a path/plan.  Can be learned by everyone.  Learning to self-regulate strengthens one’s sense of control and self-determination.  Happiness and success is achieved through self-regulation. Happiness does not just happen. You must work for it. Do Humans Have a Will?  The idea of will (volition) implies that people can create their own destiny.  One theory suggests  people are merely products of biology or the environment in which they live. Instead of being passive people reacting to forces about them, people actively construct a world in which they see themselves succeeding and achieving. Can dream about possible selves – goals, becoming different, etc. Then they adopt one of these possible selves as their goal and couple it with knowledge about how to achieve goals: leads to reality.  Volition  few limits on what we can do or become. HOWEVER: psychologists say we are limited by our biology, our ability to learn, and our ability to think and solve problems.  Limited view of volition called self-regulation behaviour. Despite being limited in certain aspects we can still learn to maximize our skills we already possess, or we can learn to develop new skills through practice. Theories of Motivation: A Historical Survey  Motivation focus is defined by: arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour  6 MAJOR THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: 1) instinct theories. 2) need/personality theories. 3) drive/learning theories. 4) growth and mastery motivation theories. 5) humanistic theories. 6) cognitive theories Instinct Theories  Thomas Aquinas  believed animals have instincts that cause behaviour, but that humans didn’t. He thought humans had a dual nature – physical and non-physical/ body and mind. But the physical side was controlled by different laws than animals. This idea came from the idea that humans were created from God. We also had a soul, rational thought.  Descartes: argued that body and mind interacted and the site of interaction was the pineal gland. Sex controlled by both. With his view humans could be held responsible for their moral actions. But their instincts could also control their actions. The catholic church was threatened by this and no research was continued.  Raises an issue: Does our cognitive side have ultimate control? Or does it lose control sometimes? What about insanity (understand if their actions were wrong)? Evolutionary Theory  Descartes said humans share the same instincts as animals. But unlike animals we could control these instincts.  Charles Darwin that animals and humans behaviours were caused by their biological structure and were constantly changing as a result of environmental presschallenged the idea of “special creation”. This change was caused by natural selecphysical or behavioural attributes that allowed them to better deal with environmental pressures would survive and reproduce and thus, would pass on this biological structure to their offspring.  Gregor Mendel – advanced the idea of genetics. Genetic theory – new genes emerge through a process called mutation. Species thus evolve over tiex. More aggressive/intelligence, etc. Change takes time. Instincts and Motivation  Early instinct theories: behaviours predetermined by our biological structure. Instincts thought to account for arousal, direction and persistence of behaviour. Behaviours are said to be innate. Freud’s Instinct Theory  Biological side of humans provide the energy/impulse for behaviour.  Said that all instincts draw their energy from a general source called libido. He viewed instincts as energy sources with the direction of behaviour subject to some of the principles of learning and cognition.  When the energy of one of the instincts built up, it would become a source of tension for the person. To reduce the tension, the person would be inclined to seek out the appropriate goal object. He also said that humans could substitute goal objects that could partially drain off the goal energy – ex. Painting, music, etc.  2 things can happen when the goal objects have been blocked: 1) person can learn to make alternative plans for attaining those goal leads to the development of the ego. 2) if ego is not fully developed or the prohibitions associated with the goal object are rigid, the person may redirect energy along routes that will reduce tension but not lead to the appropriate goals object. However the tension will continue to surface in the form of neurotic anxiety (fear that their instincts will get out of control).  Only way to achieve a happy self is to satisfy your instincts. He said that many young children learn inappropriate ways to deal with their instincts. Need Theories  Individual differences are the result of learning. How do differences arise? Need theories say that we are born with a limited set of needs that can be modified through learning.  Needs give rise to dispositions not action. Whether these dispositions lead to action depends on the situation such as past rewards. Murray’s Need Theory  Henry Murray said humans can be characterized by a limited set of needs. Individual differences are due to mainly learning.  Accepted the idea that needs could be acquired.if all human behaviour could be explained by a limited number of needs.  Invented the Thematic Apperception Tesppl presented a picture and asked to tell a story about it.  Table 1-1 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy  Argued that the basic physiological needs are associated with deficiency and the high-order needs with growth. Consistent with the approach/avoidant.  Basic/primary needs at bottom of hierarchy. The basic needs must be satisfied before the next needs are relevant.  People are ultimately motivated by the need for self-actualization.  Physiological needs safety needs belongingness and love needsesteem needs cognitive needs aesthetic needs self-actualization needs  These needs are linked to the biological system  Deficiency needs are more compelling than growth needs Strengthening and Acquiring Needs  Early: humans born with certain set of basic needs and these needs can be strengthened through rewards.  Coupling the concept of need and reward environment is important in shaping human motivation.  Some needs caused mainly by environmental influences.  David McClelland  worked on achievement motive- if you reward achievement for children they will grow up to have strong achievement motive. Brought up the idea that parenting styles can change a child’s achievement motive. Rewards do strengthen needs. The Factor Analytic Tradition  A statistical procedure that establishes whether different people group a certain set of items in the same way. If different people group things in a similar way it may be because they are operating out of similar psychological structures.  Costra and McCrae’s five-factor model five basic factors that underlie all personality measures: OCEAN 1) s to experience – intellect. Wide range of experiences. 2) Conscientiousness – productivity, ethical behaviour, responsibility. 3) Extraversion – positive emotionality. Gregarious, assertive, excitement-seeking. 4) Agreeableness – warmth, compassion, sympathy. 5) Neuroticism – negative emotionality. Anxiety, angry, hostility, depression, self-consciousness.  There can be a wide range of interaction among these 5 factors which can account for the complexity and diversity of behaviour. Learning Theories Watson’s School of Behaviorism  Behaviour is better explained by principles of learning than by instinct  John B. Watson  founded school of behaviourism. Stated there were 3 innate emotional reactions: fear, rage, and love – from which all other emotions were learned.  Cultural differences suggests that behaviour is shaped by the environment (modeling), not hardwired.  Behaviour can be largely explained by classical conditioning/ instrumental learning (reward learning) Hull’s Drive Theory  Clark Hull the activation of a drive leads to random behaviour. Organism accidentally performs a response that reduces a drive. The behaviour leading to drive reduction is strengthened. Over time with repeated reduction of that drive, a habit is formed.  Freud suggests that instincts give rise to representations of goal objects, BUT Hull says that goal object is discovered in the course of random behaviour. The reduction of a drive produces reinforcement. Drives activate habits. Behaviour = drives x habits.  When a habit is weak, it takes a strong drive to produce behaviour. However if a habit is highly developed a weak drive can activate it. Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory  Said it was not necessary for a drive to be reduced for learning to occur.  Behaviour is under the control of external rewards. Positive rewards increase the probability of a behaviour, and negative rewards decrease its probability.  Called himself and empiricist. Only talked about observable behaviour. (No theory)  Persistence is often greater if an organism is rewarded only some of the time, rather than each time it makes a desired response (partial response).  Partial reinforcement contingencies (schedules of reinforcement) produce different forms of persistence. Thus, persistence could be explained without reference to biology.  Behaviour modification  possible to alter widely diverse behaviours through rewards associated with drug use and eating patterns, etc.  The energy, direction, and persistence of behaviour are due to reinforcement contingencies Social Learning Theories  People can also learn by modeling the behaviour of another person. We can acquire a new behaviour simply by observing that it produces some desired outcome for another person.  1) The tendency to view behaviour as occurring independently of environmental contingencies. 2) The assumption that organisms can acquire experiences (habits) in the absence of direct experience or reward.  Vicarious motivators – can learn to avoid making certain mistakes and design an optimal course of action for achieving desired ends.  Social learning – able to explain behaviours that had no immediate survival value.  Model aggression partially. Information can account for the source (energy), direction, and persistence of behaviour. Introduced rudimentary cognitive concepts. People develop expectations. Ex. What situations would aggressive behaviour be appropriate in. People also learn through consequences.  Observing a person engage in a certain behaviour and attain a desired goal provides vicarious reinforcement to the observer = liklihood of observer to imitate behaviour increases. Growth and Mastery Motivation Theories (Pull Theories) Exploration, Curiosity, and Mastery  Animals and humans are motivated by their need to successfully interact with the environment. Humans are not born with fully developed abilities. To adapt and succeed we must develop these abilities. Humans need to process info and acquire skills/develop mastery.  The mechanism that motivates growth and mastery is a discrepancy between where the individual is and where the individual needs to be to successfully adapt to the environment. This discrepancy creates tension inside organism. To reduce tension, person must reduce the discrepancy by developing skills and intellect. Negative affective state is associated with discrepancy (itch/hunger pang). Must develop cognitive structures – ability to process info quickly and efficiently. Development of higher-order mental processes such as categories.  Optimal level of incoming stimulation for people to process – if environment doesn’t provide enough stimulation people will seek out novel environments to satisfy their need for stimulation.  Tensions motivate the person to do things that will return them to tension-free state. These tensions are only reduced when skills are developed or cognitive structures are sufficient to deal with the environment.  Disagreement about approach or avoidant mechanisms. Thus there are master-oriented (want to learn everything about environment) people and ego-oriented (environment that is immediate use to them and their survival). Humanistic Theories  Maslow and Rogers  humans are good and possess an innate (biological) tendency to grow and mature. Each of us is unique. Key concept is self-actualization, which depends on a highly developed self-concept.  Rogers  organisms actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing self. To actualize is innate, but the route is frequently characterized by pain and suffering. People have ability to judge what is good for them and what is not. What we approach and what we avoid depend on our perception of what promotes the development of self (positive or negative experiences). Need for positive regard need to receive approval, to be accepted, to be loved. Sensitive to critisism of others. Internalize this and develop positive self-regard. Organismic valuation process – listen to inner voice: innate capacity to judge what is good for the self. Cognitive Theories  Mental representations formed by humans play a central role in guiding their behaviour. Ex. Rats who were preexposed to the maze did mental mapping to find the cheese quicker. Expectancy-Value Theories  One type of mental representation is an expectancy: a judgement about the likely outcome of behaviour , formed because of past experiences. Provides motivation construct when coupled with value. People also assign a value to the outcome.  These theories are hedonisticassume we will select the alternative likely to arouse the greatest feeling of pleasure (positive affect). If all the alternatives are unattractive, we will choose the option that produces the least pain. Which of the 2 options will a person choose with the probability of achieving a certain outcome (lottery) and the reward magnitude (amount of money). What is the tradeoff. Goal-Setting Theories  Humans can motivate themselves by setting future goals.  Locke and Latham  goals affect behaviours in 4 ways: 1) direct attention. 2) mobilize effort to the task. 3) encourage persistence. 4) facilitate development of strategies.  Goals should be difficult and specific. Commitment is key. To get commitment it is better for people to set their own goals. Social-Cognitive Theories of Goal Setting  Whether people set difficult goals or are committed depends on how they perceive their abilities to attain the goals.  Self-Efficacy expectations that focus on their beliefs about their capabilities to organize and execute the behaviours requisite for attaining the outcome.  Expectancy-values is related to amount of effort. Self-efficacy is our beliefs of our capacities. Chapter 2 – Components of Motivation  Components of behaviour/motivation behaviour is caused by the interaction between biological, learning, and cognitive processes. The Biological Component Origins of Human Brain Design  Evolutionary psychology Dawinian evolutionary theory can be summarized in 4 basic assumptions: 1) Human community as we know it today has resulted from years of evolution. Species tend to evolve rapidly for some time and then stabilize without evolving further. 2) Just as we have adapted physically, we also have an adapted mind (learning and problem solving). Mind is designed to help us survive and reproduce. Mind is different than brain as we have multiple intelligent systems that work with the body to produce our actions. 3) Our bodies and minds are adapted for a world in which we no longer live. 4) Under new circumstances, adaptations of the brain can be used for purposes other than those for which they were designed. E.g., Remembering phone numbers or driving a car, we have adapted to do these things.  Evolution is incapable of looking forward and prepares us for a life to come. Helps us survive the present and carry our brain design forward.  Don’t get this confused with the Sociobiology theory/ the selfiswe are motivated to propagate our own genes in future generations to preserve ourselves in some way. In evolutionary theory genes are said to spread themselves. The most selfish things a gene can do is build a selfless brain.  2 central complementary drives (minds): one being self-preservation and the other being preservation of the species. The Example of Temperament  Temperament  how we react to the world (reactivity) and how we self-regulate ourselves (self control) in the face of certain environmental demands. We are born with a certain temperament and only change throughout life in subtle ways.  Temperament described as 3 broad factors: 1) having a disposition toward high activity, a preference for intense stimulation (loud noises), and a proclivity for taking risks. These ppl are at ease in social situations. 2) Disposition toward negativity – to be fearful and/or sad and to be angry when frustrated. Ppl low in negativity tend to be curious, open to new experiences, happy, not frustrated. 3) Ability to regulate attention and behaviour – “effortful control”. Ppl who focus their attention/behaviour are likely to achieve and experience pleasure.  Personality can be described by 3 to 5 underlying factors : OCEAN. Each of these dimensions are in our genes. Diversity is adaptive.  What starts out as temperament becomes personality. Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins  Mono  one egg. Di 2 eggs.  The genetic processes and environment both play a huge role in determining temperament Brain Structure and Brain Curcuits  Brain circuits different structures, working together with connecting pathways that are aroused simultaneously.  Brain circuits cause emotions. Each emotion has a distinct brain circuit. The activation of brain circuits does not cause action, but rather creates the disposition to action. How the individual acts depends by both learned and cognitive variables. Some Important Brain Circuits in Motivation  “Extended Adaptation” most brain systems are general systems, but they can also have an extended capacity meaning they can be used for other things like make a high tech society. Use our “old” brain to adapt to our present environment. Approach and Avoidant Motivation: The Behavioural Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS)  BAS  activated by conditioned signals of rewards and nonpunishment. When the system is activated, arousal is enhanced, and together they promote increased approach behaviour.  BIS  is activated by conditioned signals of punishment and nonreward, and novel stimuli. When the system is activated arousal is enhanced, and together they lead to an inhibition of on-going behaviour. Serves to promote the suppression of inappropriate behaviour.  These 2 systems can vary in strength. One may be more active than the other. Anxious people tend to be people whose BIS is more active than their BAS. Sensation seekers tend to be ppl who have a more active BAS.  We are born with either an overactive BIS or BAS, but with training we can learn (self- regulation) to overcome the costs associated with having an overactive BAS/BIS. The Disposition to Experience Pleasure and Punishment  Different brain circuits for reward and punishment The Reward Pathway (Dopaminergic Pathway)  Brain circuits for adaptive behaviours.  E.g. of reward pathways electrodes on brain to treat depression – electrical stimulation produces positive feelings. Drugs such as amphetamines produce feelings of euphoria. Evidence indicates that these pathways reinforce behaviour. Organisms will quickly learn behaviours that activate this sytem. Humans are motivated to perform actions that produce positive feelings (positive affect). Ability to learn highly adaptive behaviours like finding foor and less adaptive like taking drugs.  Limbic system  interconnected structures deep within brain that regulates emotions such as fear, love, anger and is involved in the activation of behaviour (dispositions) and its reinforcement. Triggered differently than dopamingernic pathway. Prefrontal Cortex  Right prefrontal cortex activated more when ppl are presented with a stimuli that provokes withdrawal negative affect (fear, disgust)  Left prefrontal cortex activated more when ppl are presented with a stimuli that evokes approach-related positive affect.  People tend to have great activation in one of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, some ppl have a bias towards experience negative affect or positive affect. Measured intensity of affect. The Amygdala  When the amygdala is more reactive, individuals tend to report greater negative affect.  High amygdala metabolic rate – highly reactive to negative pictures.  Individual differences The Concept of Plasticity  Plasticity whether or not the basic structure of the brain can be altered as the result of certain experiences or thought processes.  There are short-term changes in brain activation as the result of voluntary emotion regulation. Self-Regulation of Behaviour and the Prefrontal Cortex  Well developed prefrontal cortex complex integration of goals, plans, and feedback so that humans are able to pursue goal directed behaviour by focusing our attention.  Self-regulation is an acquired behaviour that comes from learning the “rules of the game”/designing a plan.  We are not at the mercy of our biology. Through learning and planning we can redirect our behaviour so we can achieve self-made goals. The Role of Neurotransmitters in Information Processing  Nerve pathways are made up short lengths of nerve fibers separated by gaps called synapses. Information must cross these gaps to travel along the pathway. When the nerve pathway is activated, nerotransmitters are released and carry info across the synapse.  For each neurotransmitter there are several different receptors. 10 for serotonin, 5 for dopamine. The combination of different neurotransmitters and different receptors accounts for the ability of the brain to perform wide arrange of complex functions.  Once neurotransmitters have carried a message across the synapse they are typically inactivated. This ensures that they do not excite the postsynaptic neuron indefinitely. The inactivated neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the presypnatic neuron, synthesized back into an active state, and stored for release.  Diet can play a role in the availability of neurotransmitters as protein helps synthesize neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters and Moods  Involved in the regulation of moods.  Norepinephrine is linked to feelings of euphoria and depression. High levels = euphoric. Low levels = depressed. Cocaine can cause this positive mood.  GABA regulates anxiety and information processing.  Endorphins and substance P = role in experience in pain. Painkilling properties.  Heroin and morphine  trigger endorphine release.  Seotonin  low levels linked to depression. High levels linked to euphoria.  Dopamine  low levels linked to depression. High levels linked to euphoria. Many recreational drugs such as amphetamine trigger dopamine release.  Negative moods are associated with attention to or memories of threating stimuli. Positive moods linked to attention to or memories of opportunities and possibilities.  Moods might have been evolved to help us self-regulate. Becoming Aware of Your Biological Processes  Under conditions of sensory isolation we attend to our physiological responses because we have nothing else to get our attention. Less affected by stress at a later time because they learned relaxation techniques. First step in learning to control your physiological responses is to become aware of them. Relaxed state = producing alpha waves. We can indirectly be aware of certain system like our reward pathwabe aware of your moods. Firing neurotransmitters causes a physiological response.  Dualistic Paradigm aware of our biological responses when we understand that they are directly linked to our mental processes.  Buck  affective states can be viewed as voices of the genes. 2 classes of affect: selfish affect and prosocial affect. The Learned Component Attention and Learning  Attention consists of 3 interrelated processes: 1) humans needs to focus their sensory receptors on a source of information to analyze that info. We call this attending or receptor orientation. 2) when organisms focus their attention on a given source of info, they selectively process only part of the incoming info. This is called selective attention. 3) limited in our ability to process info, so we cannot effectively deal with vast amounts of info or complex topics. Thus, we look for underlying organizations. Group things together. Perception, meaning, and understanding.  Good teaching involves all 3 attentions. Associative and Cognitive Learning  Associative learning connection of stimuli and responses. Depend on first 2 types of attention. Make sense of the world using associative learning. But as things become more complex we rely on cognitive processes. Is Attention Under Voluntary Control  Attention is only partially under voluntary control. Managing attention is key to effective learning.  Teaching: present material at an optimum pacenot so fast that they lose the slow learner and not so slow that they lose the fast learner.  Intentional = purposeful learning. Incidental = passive, unintentional learning.  Because our info processing is limited, we often shift our attention back and forth to learn two things simultaneously. Our ability to learn depends on the amount on info in the 2 sources. Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  dog can salivate at the sound of a bell if the bell was rung whenever food was presented. Unconditioned stimulus (food) naturally leads to the unconditioned response (salivation). When the dog salivates when food isn’t presented the bell is the conditioned stimulus. This leads to the conditioned response.  The conditioned response is not as strong as the unconditioned response. If the conditioned stimulus (bell) is repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (food) it will eventually lose its ability to elicit the response. The procedure of repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus in the absence of a reward or the unconditioned stimulus is called extinction. Conditioning and Adaptive Behaviour  Classical conditioning is crucial for adaptive behaviour. Depend on signals to warn of threats to survival. Context and Conditioning  Drug addiction is under situational control. Urge to use drugs appears to be triggered by the environment. Change the environment and the urge disappears. Users needs a greater amount of the drug to feel high in a familiar environment than a new one. This is called the opponent process. Instrumental Learning  Organisms learn that certain environmental events, such as receiving rewards or punishments, depend on their own behaviour.  Fig. 2-5 compares classical conditioning and instrumental learning. Pg. 41.  Rewarded behaviour will continue at a high rate even when the reward is removed. A nonreward response will eventually diminish. This is called extinction. One way to make a response continue in the absence of reward is to offer partial reinforcement of the behaviour. Secondary Rewards and Instrumental Learning  If a reward is to be effective, it must be applied as soon as possible after the desired behaviour has occurred.  Primary reinforcers (food) are very effective as rewards for behaviour. Something with the capacity to increase a response independently of an previous learning.  Secondary rewards  A+, “veryy good!” may be more effective. Works because: 1) forms of praise acquire reward value because they have been associated with the presentation of a primary reward. “Conditioned incentives”. 2) A “very good” we know means that we are acquiring a skill that has value. Social Incentive Theory  Positive (rewarding) experiences often occur when we do what others want us to do. Approval signals that other primary rewards are forthcoming. Disapproval takes on significance as well. Avoid disapproval because it signals the withdrawal of primary rewards.  Seeking approval and avoiding disapproval are central motivators for humans. They are somewhat unpredictable. Imitation and Observation Learning  Children learn through imitation and observation. 14 to 24 month children usually imitate their mother.  Once we have acquired certain habits it is not always easy to replace those old habits with new more desired habits. Intentions by themselves often fail to produce the desired response. The Cognitive Component rd  Involves the 3 aspect of attention: humans are unable to process limitless amount of info. Thus, we find higher-order relationships, structures, and rules. Memories have to do with order and structure. We get this organization and structure from our sensory system, learning, personal discovery. We are equipped to find redundancy, able to discard everything but the essential elements. Cognitive Theories  Piaget  theory of development: children are motivated to develop cognitive structures because they need to interact with and master the environment. We first start with assimilation process info by whatever structures they have. When these structures are not complex enough for the child to make complete sense of his interactions with the world, he begins to experience confusion which is known as disequilibrium. This stage motivates the child to develop new cognitive structures to make sense of the complexity, which is accommodation. Development is a lifelong process. The Nature of Cognitions  Cognitions are based on past learning. We model parents and modify those structures by person experiences.  Our cognition has the tendency to make things consistent. We modify beliefs with our values.  According to attention theory we see the world as consistent and predictable.  Once our cognitive structures are formed they are very resistant to change. Categories and Labels  Brain has evolved to identify the main characteristics of incoming stimulation. Infants recognize face of parents.  Schema = contains the essential or defining features of a category. Categories allow us to summarize complex info into generic forms, so have less info to remember.  Categories help us identify objects, dispositions, emotions, behaviours.  We also categorize and label our own behaviour. Ppl who label themselves as alcoholic begin to behave like alcoholics. We define what label means just as we redefine our beliefs and attitudes. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values  As we develop we learn many of our beliefs, attitudes, and values from our parents. Many of our beliefs attitudes and values are also based on our own experiences. Children are actively involved in their own development. Some beliefs, attitudes and values come from learning (imitation/modeling), whereas some come from cognitive processes (active construction. To change behaviour we often need to change beliefs, attitudes and values. One way of doing this is to become more mindful.  One important feature of learning is the tendency to generalize a response learned in one situation to other situations.  Stereotypes = response generalization. They arise from a limited number of instances. Stereotypes arise in the absence of relevant personal knowledge. Adopt the beliefs and attitudes of other people. They are relatively stable, but they can change. Cognitive Dissonance Theory  People need to experience cognitive consistency. This theory helps to explain why categories, beliefs, attitudes, values, and stereotypes are highly resistant to change.  Cognitive Dissonance Theory humans are inclined to process info in such a way that it will be consistent with existing categories, beliefs, attitudes, values, stereotypes, and behaviour – and to ignore info that doesn’t fit with existing beliefs and to seek info that does fit.  Action-based model of cognitive dissonance theorystate of dissonance interferes with the ability to act. Not being able to choose between two equally attractive suitors. Ultimately concerned with self regulation and executive function. Implicit Theories  These are hypotheses, models, and beliefs, about the nature of the external world (world theories) and what we need to do to satisfy our desires in this world (self theories). These theories exist at the preconscious level.  Implcit theories involve more irrational and intuitive thinking. Experiential system implicit theories come out of this different system for processing info. Result mainly from our own experiences. Habits, Automatic Behaviour, and Cognition  Habits  result from the repetition of some response or sequences of responses. Hull argued that drive must be reduced for a habit to be strengthened. Others say habits form from repeating a response over and over and that rewards act as an incentive for engaging in repitition. Learning theories say that habits grow from existing behaviours.  Automatic behaviour has its origins in intentional or planned behaviour. Is highly adaptive. Allows you to use limited attention to do other things. Driving, listening to music, directions, etc. An Example: What Causes Happiness?  Happiness depends on whether or not the environment is providing us with satisfying rewards. Perfect environment = happiness.  Cognitive theorists say that we need to change the way we view the environment. What you see or feel depends on your beliefs, attitudes, values, and implicit theories. Thus, happiness is subjective. Happiness is a state of mind; it’s a result of the decisions that we make. Gain happiness through our senses, exercising skills, through mastery, and social interactions. Becoming Mindful of Your Cognitive Processes  Mindfulness automatic behaviour and it frees our conscious mind. We also get into ruts; we don’t change habits even when we should. If we want to change we need to be more mindful of our cognitions.  Mindful  power to change and to control things. 1) Generate alternatives. 2) Gain a sense of control. 3) learn how to make decisions. 4) Learn to gain control of your thinking process. Individual Differences  Humans differ by age, gender, temperament, past conditioning, cognitive structures, momentary stress, goals, and recent failures and successes. Attribution Theory: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour  Attribution theory concerned with how humans come to perceive the causes of behaviour. If someone’s perceptions about the cause of behaviour affect subsequent behaviour, then we have good evidence that cognitive factors play a central role in the arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour.  People are inclined to look for reasonable explanations for their behaviour, including autonomic responses. Locus of Control Theory: Internal and External Causes  Internal people perceive that the cause of their behaviour lies within themselves.  External people it lies outside themselves.  Both differ in locus of control. Only actions with internals can b
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