Textbook Notes (362,790)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (1,877)
PS264 (24)
Chapter 11

Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 11

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Camie Condon

Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 11  Happiness o Two ways to measure  Asking people how good they feel at a given moment  Subjective well-being (SWB)  People evaluate their lives affectively and cognitively  High SWB o Few negative emotions o Many positive emotions o Involved in interesting activities o Satisfaction with their lives o Many desirable qualities  More liked by others, less likely to get divorced, live longer, better work performance, higher income  Feelings of gratitude, grateful thinking o Three myths about the origins of happiness  Myth that life is difficult and few people are happy  Historically, people have claimed few people are happy o Psychologists suggested only 10-20% of people are truly happy  Contrary is true, people are generally happy  The myth that money makes people happy  Money is important, provides basics of life  Once basic necessities of life have been satisfied, increasing income does not lead to greater happiness  Dark side to a capitalistic culture o People tend to have lower sense of well-being and poorer mental health  People who suddenly become rich become happy for a short period  Been a shift towards a materialistic mentality o Media plays a role  Myth that we cannot become happier  Doomed to our present level of happiness because we adapt to those new events that make us happy  Important to distinguish between more short-term events and experience or activities that bring lasting satisfaction o Biological component  Twin studies – half of variance of SWB is due to heritability  Happiness positive related to personality trait of extraversion and negatively related to neuroticism  Positively related to good social relationships  Linked to both behavioural activation system and behavioural inhibition system  BAS – producing reward o Dopaminergic system, gives rise to positive effect  Relatively active BAS, inactive BIS  Two forms of positive effect  Selfish affect and Social effect  Shared fate – would not be here if ancestors failed  Positive to active left prefrontal cortex, negative to right prefrontal  Left as prosocial , right as selfish  Happiness as an adaptive behaviour  Linked to leading full and productive life o 8 goals Brian Kwok 1 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 11  Good health  Professional success  Helping friends and relatives  Achieve intimacy  Experience feelings of confidence  Satisfying taste that comes from good food  Secure and safe  Resources to attain these things o Consistent with evolutionary analysis of what is in our best interests o Learned and cognitive components  The conquest of fear  Most evolutionary psychologists do not believe change are due mainly to genetics alone o Due to cultural evolution  Most animals have innate fear to fire  Humans learning to conquest fire, increased food diversity, venture and live in colder climates, manufacturing to evolve  Humans have conquered may fears o Brain constantly analyses environment for survival threats  Amygdala in charge of flight of fight system  Cortex has capacity to block or inhibit signals form amygdala  May produce false alarms o Prefrontal cortex compares incoming information against memories and other information and decides if threat is real or not  If threat is real, decide if flight or fight is acceptable  If no real threat, shuts down flight flight/fight response  Ability to make plans  Prefrontal cortex has ability to create and manipulate images  We can reflect on outcome and make plans for the future o Develop contingency plans  Able to learn to deal with threats in a new way o Physical defences  Ancestors less preoccupied with threats, culture flourished  Less under the direction of the fight-flight response o Experience positive emotions more of the time  Gained capacity to create environment which there we are not constantly threatened  Makes it possible to self-regulate o Why did humans evolve large prefrontal cortex in the first place  Adaptive for ancestors to become sensitized to potential threats  Evolved to help them survive  Both amygdala and prefrontal cortex emerged to deal with same problem, threats to our survival  Evolved together  Motivation for creating plans  Positive emotions responsible for self-interest and for personal survival o At heart of human survival and evolution  Each succeeding generation refines knowledge it has been given and passes that knowledge to next generation o Shared fate Brian Kwok 2 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 11  May have led to USA being first country to institute public education  Humans developed capacity to pass along cultural information crucial for future survival when they learned how to communicate  Flow experience and happiness  Flow experience – linked to feelings of happiness o Doing things to achieve intrinsic motivation better than for extrinsic motivation  Might come from anything that captures one’s attention so nothing else seems to exist or seems important  Several common characteristics of flow experience o 1. Aware of everything they’re doing o 2. Able to get immediate feedback o 3. Feel abilities match task before them  Happiness occurs after completion of flow activity o Achieved by allowing oneself to become completely absorbed in an activity  May need to increase complexity so that it continues to challenge and absorb them  Happiness and coping o Note always easy to achieve flow  Need to deal with external world, characterized by threats and demands o Coping used in connection with the word stress  Capture idea that sometimes best we can do is make reasonable progress towards dealing with external demands and goals  People can still experience happiness o Four main qualities linked to feeling happiness  Extraversion, optimism, self-esteem and personal control o Biological component  Once learning takes place, stress is markedly reduced  Most of our daily interactions characterized as moving between fear and happiness  When people make coping response, experience wide range of emotions  When positive affect triggered, new style of thinking emerges  Linked to dopamine level increase o Learned/cognitive component  Self-efficacy theory  Animals tend to learn faster in subsequent situations  Personal control, self-esteem and optimism = self efficacy  Bandura o Our ability to cope effectively determined by self-efficacy beliefs  Affect whether people thinking enhancing or debilitating ways  How we motivate ourselves  Whether we persist in face of difficulties  Susceptibility to stress and depression o The degree to which we persist in face of obstacle linked to feelings of self- efficacy o Strong-efficacy beliefs play critical role in setting and pursuing goals  Broaden-and-build theory  Positive affect and positive emotions facilitate approach behaviour or continued behaviour o Highly adaptive – motivates and rewards behaviours that lead individual to explore novel things Brian Kwok 3 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 11  Negative affect and emotions source of negative motivation and lead to avoidant behaviour  Theory states = positive emotions broaden people’s momentary though-action repertoires, widening number of thoughts and actions that come to mind o One’s personal resources increase whenever positive emotions are activated  Negative emotions narrow thought-action repertoires  Positive people develop more adaptive  Triggering positive emotions effective way of undoing negative emotions  Question of uncertainty and coping o Happiness from confronting fear and uncertainty: develop a bias for action  One of the major reasons we experi
More Less

Related notes for PS264

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.