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Chapter 12

Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 12

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Camie Condon

Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 12  Curiosity and Exploratory behaviour o Exploratory behaviour occurs without very much encouragement from their parents o Motivation for exploring has been basis for much discussion and debate o Novelty, curiosity and exploratory behaviour  Organisms motivated to interact with new or novel objects and learn in the process  Interest in novel things diminishes with repeated exposure led to conclusion that what motivates exploratory behaviour is novelty  Preference for complexity  Animals prefer choosing more complex stimulus if given the choice  Human exploratory behaviour is highly systematic  Dember and earl’s theory of exploratory behaviour  Theory based on assumption that organisms motivated to experience optimal complexity  Pacer ranger o Individual becomes accustomed or habituated to a certain level of complexity (Adaptation level)  Motivated to explore stimuli slightly more complex  Individuals will select stimuli slightly more complex than those they have adapted to, and will increase complexity o Competence and exploratory behaviour  Effectance motivation – effective interactions with environment intrinsically rewarding o What is the motivation to explore?  Animals explore to ensure survival  To escape predator- find escape routes  To eat - To know food supplies  To reproduce- location of potential mates  Argued that motivation no longer tied directly to specific survival needs, but has roots in more generalized drive  Need for self-determination, emerged as an evolutionary adaption  Motivation from an evolutionary prospective  Curiosity aroused by novelty, novelty is in the eye of the beholder  Motivation from a psychology perspective  Because of developing competence, things in environment are new or novel, motivates individuals to interact with them o New or novel things become familiar, other things become novel, motivates person to interact with them  Exploratory behaviour is an inverted U shape o Low or high complexity produces low effect  Motivated to maintain moderate arousal, inclined to seek out new stimuli that depart from standard to experience moderate arousal again o Concept of challenge and growth  Motivation theorists – exploration as a person-environment interaction in which environment provides challenge to the individual  During play, wide range of social skills more or less automatically emerge o Anxiety and exploratory behaviour  Exploration decreases or stops altogether when the individual is anxious  Exploratory behaviour motivated by tendency to seek out novelty  Tendency might decrease when highly aroused  Securely attached infants explore more  Not only reduces anxiety, increases achievement/mastery behaviour Brian Kwok 1 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 12  Feelings of anxiety or arousal play important role in exploratory behaviour o Biological component  Children with relatively stable temperaments more receptive to novel situations  Children less receptive take longer to adapt to new situations, must become secure before they start exploring  Inhibited and uninhibited children  Considerable amount of extraversion due to genetics  About 43%  Extraversion linked to tendency to selected variety, novelty and complexity  Exploration must be viewed within hierarchical motive system  Minimal fear and anxiety- motive to explore fully aroused  High fear and anxiety- attention focused on survival o Until survival needs are met, exploration does not happen  Exploratory behaviour has roots in BAS and BIS  BAS – activation of this system creates positive effect, activated by reward systems together with arousal  BIS- acts as comparator, comparing actual with expected stimulation o As long as it matches, remains in checking mode  If situation is novel BIS activates alongside of BAS o Timid or cautious until stimulus become familiar o Learned/cognitive component  Age and preference for complexity  Experience plays central role in tendency to respond to variety, novelty and complexity  Organisms become familiar with things by abstracting information  Process more as we attend more closely  As we grow older, ability to process more complex cognitive stimuli increases  Experience, competence and preference for complexity  If individuals repeatedly exposed to stimuli, lose interest because all information is exhausted  Art students have experience processing complex visual stimuli, compared to nonart students o Intrinsic motivation  Used in place of exploratory behaviour  Defined as – inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to extend and exercise one’s capacities, to explore and learn o Self-determination theory  Humans have three innate needs  Competence, relatedness and autonomy  Autonomy and competence form basis for understanding intrinsic motivation o Before people can experience sense of competence, must experience feelings of autonomy  Autonomy pertains to behaviour that has arisen in absence of external controls or influences  When autonomy encouraged, greater intrinsic motivation, curiosity, drive for challenge  When control emphasized initiative decreases  Humans innately inclined to systematically respond to novelty and challenge to develop competence  Self regulate, set goals, find paths to goals, activating mental capacities to complete goal Brian Kwok 2 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 12  When rewards are given, interest diminishes, decrease involvement or interaction with task  Rewarding intrinsically motivated individuals will undermine motivation o Internalizing value associated with topic will increase motivation  Sense of relatedness grows out of feeling a sense of belonging or connected  Have roots in “shared fate”  Sensation Seeking o Zuckerman  Sensation seeking – trait defined by need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and willingness to take physical/social risks for sake of new experiences o High arousal tends to shift attention to more survival-related cues, incompatible with exploratory behaviour o Zuckerman’s sensation seeking scale  Thrill and adventure seeking  Inclined to seek excitement through risky but socially acceptable activities  Experience seeking  Engaging in activities outside of conventional lifestyle  Disinhibition  Follow conventional lifestyle might periodically escape and engage in social drinking, gambling or pursuing variety of sexual partners  Boredom susceptibility  Seek out stimulation to escape monotony of everyday life o Biological component  Monoamine oxidase and sensation seeking  Impulsiveness negatively correlated with monoamine oxidase o Low levels of MAO in high sensation seekers  Important regulator of amine neurotransmitters: norephinephrine, dopamine, serotonin o High MAO levels in low sensation seekers  High sensation seekers greater pleasure from cocaine use, which stimulates reward centers o Likely to use drug again o Opposite holds true for low sensation seekers  Heritability of sensation seeking  Zuckerman argued that MAO level differences are inherited o Twin studies supported this hypothesis o About 60% can be linked back to genetics  Linked to testosterone levels in men o Attention seeking higher in men than women o Learned /cognitive component  Must play essential role in development and expression  Thrill and adventure seeking  People develop and execute set of skills during these activities o Many high risk activities involves speed, height or both  Triggers innate fear or anxiety response, increasing arousal  Thrill seekers learn to use fear as means of increasing arousal level to experience psychological high  People control their fears and anxiety through mastery training  Thrill seekers inclined to increase level of risk as skills improve o Know that there is some risk, but accept that certain level of risk necessary to be happy Brian Kwok 3 Motivation and Emotion – Chapter 12  Experience seeking  Value variety o Broad set of friends o Involved in artistic activities  Tend to be open to all new forms of artistic endeavors  Stimulation seeking individuals tend to develop higher IQ as well as develop better cognitive skills  Create an enriched environment that stimulates cognitive development o Highly curious people develop better social skills/intimacy as a result of greater tendency to engage in social interactions  Disinhibtion  Can be thought of not being conventional, predictable, dependable  People more open to new experiences, might be more willing to experiment with drugs o Sensation seekers tend to use alcohol, marijuana and cocaine  Sensation seekers like parties, characterized by uninhibited behaviour o Provide wealth of sensory stimulation  Develop a value system so that underlying need is to have new and different experiences  Creativity and sensation seeking  Sensation seeking can lead to delinquency or creativity o Direction people take molded by variety of factors o Both share
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