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PS268 (56)

Drugs and Behaviours Readings.docx

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Bruce Mc Kay

Drugs and Behaviours Readings Chapter One Psychoactive Drugs: compounds that alter conciousness and affect mood. Effect thoughts emotions or behaviour. Principles that apply to all psychoactive drugs: 1) drugs are not good or bad. It is the way the drug is being used that makes it bad. 2) every drug has multiple effect. Act on more than one place in the brain so we expect them to produce complex psychological effects. All drugs have an effect on the brain which also effects the rest of the body. 3) size and quality of the drugs effect depend on the amount taken. 4) the effect of any drug depnds on the individuals history and expectations. Depends on what was there initially. Their attitude can have an extreme difference on the drug experience. - druge use and its regulations are reflective of changes in our society and in how we as individuals interact with that society. - our attempts to solve drug problems have had major influences on us as individuals and our perceptions of appropriate roles for government, education and healthcare. Extent of Drug Use Trends: we have large changes in rates of drug use even when the supply of the drug does not appear to change much. The best way to achieve low rates of drug use is by convincing students the drug is risky. The cause and effect of risk and drug use has not been proven yet. How do we explain these changes in drug use? Social trends. Correlates of Drug Use Those who use the drugs compared to those who do not. Can certain personal characteristics be correlated with drug use? Analyze in terms of risk and protective factors. Risk factors are correlated with higher rates of drug use an protective factors with lower rates of drug use. People who reported that their parents frequently monitored their behaviour were a little more likely to report using marijuana. Kids who are getting low grades anyway are more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana. Race, gender and level of education: Men are more likely to drink, smoke, and use cocaine than females. White people are more likely to use the drugs than their fellow stereotypes. Personality variables: weak or inconsistent correlations with most traditional personality types. “impulsivity”: (a persons tendency to act quickly without thinking of long term consequences) can be correlated with rates of substance use in the general pipulation. Find higher rates of substance use in people who are antisocial or have conduct disorder. Personality factors play a small role in whether someone will try it but play a larger role in whether it develops into a serious problem. Genetics: probably play a small role in whether someone tries drugs but a larger role in whether the use will develop into a serious problem Antecedents of drug use: characteristics that predict later initiation of drug use. Heavy alcohol use can be predicted by risk factors such as: aggressiveness, conduct problems, poor academic performance, attachment to bad company, parents and society norms more accepting of drugs. Gateway Substances: one of the first drugs used by a typical drug user. explains something about later drug use. However knowing which drug was used first was not a good predictor of later drug use. Indicatior of the basic pattern of deviant behaviour resulting from a variety of psychosocial risk factors. Motives for drug use: 1) young people have chosen to identify with a deviant subculture. Engage in a variety of behaviours not condoned by the larger society. Within that group a certain drug may not be considered deviant but rather expected. 2) people try hard to impress their peers or parents and if they are not receiving that attention they may turn to dangerous things to receive that attention. 3) may be found within the drug itself. Many of the drugs are capable of reinforcing the behaviour that gets the drug into the system. Reinforcement is when each time you take the drug you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again.. 4) most seek an altered state of conciousness. Looking for a change – something new and different. Deviant drug use: forms of drug use not considered either normal or acceptable by the society at large. Drug Misuse: using a drug in a way that was not intended by it
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